Diary of Juan Bautista de Anza
Colonizing Expedition, 1775-1776
Wednesday, May 1 SP -- I remained at the mission. As soon as it was daylight I advised Commander Rivera that I was setting out today, asking if he needed more time to write to his Excellency, but he answered me that he did not and that his reports would overtake me in the night.
Thursday, May 2 SP -- At four in the afternoon I began my return from this California to the province of Sonora, with the ten soldiers of my company, Father Fray Pedro Font, the commissary of the expedition in my command, and eight muleteers who came in the expedition intending to return, to which are added my servants already noted at the beginning of the diary. Having begun our march, we went east-northeast for two leagues and crossed the river of the old mission of San Gabriel, where we halted at a quarter to six to camp for the night, having traveled this distance in an hour and three-quarters. -- From the San Francisco River to the ford of the San Gabriel, 156 leagues.
Friday, May 3 SP -- At a quarter to seven we continued our march to the east-northeast, in which direction we traveled five leagues, arriving at eleven o'clock at the Arroyo de los Alizos or Ossos , where we halted to pass the hottest part of the day, and where about thirty heathen came to see us. From here we set out at three in the afternoon, traveling over a good plain to the east-southeast for about four and one-half leagues, at the end of which we halted at a quarter past six, to camp for the night at a place without water and with little firewood , having traveled altogether today nine and one-half leagues in seven and one-half hours. -- From the river named to the vicinity of the Santa Anna River, 165 1/2 leagues.
A quarter of an hour after we had halted a corporal of the mission of San Gabriel came to our camp and delivered a letter to me from Commander Rivera, which I will present at the proper time. In it he tells me that because he lacked the time to seal a paper relating to a criminal who took refuge in the place where Mass is said at San Diego, and which is in the custody of the minister of that mission, he is not sending me a letter for his Excellency, and in order that I may not be delayed he is reporting this to me. After this he goes on to another matter, foreign to anything official, and concludes with a postscript begging me to excuse him to his Excellency for not writing to him because of the accident mentioned at the beginning.
This, as they say, is the matter of least importance for the information of his Excellency, and of consequence only to the interested party. From it one infers that this man in the three days which I gave him to write, those which he had by reaching San Gabriel ahead of me, and a part of today, might have employed them in matters which, it seems to me, are more important for the information of that superior, such as the present state of the uprising at San Diego, or his having agreed with me concerning the port of San Francisco, and various other things important to his command, but of these he makes no mention.
Saturday, May 4 SP -- At half past seven I ordered back to his post the corporal sent to me by Commander Rivera, with a reply to his letter, a copy of which I will present. I likewise enclosed one which he sent with mine for the father guardian of San Fernando de México, telling him that I was not taking it because I did not consider it respectful to his Excellency, to whom he was not writing, nor likewise to me. A little before seven we continued our journey to the east-southeast for a league and a half, when we came to the Santa Anna River and halted on its banks at a quarter past eight, because we had to camp in the afternoon without water. At half past twelve we resumed our march and continued to the east-southeast for about three leagues. At the end of this distance we finished crossing some low hills, from which we continued three more leagues to the southeast, finishing the journey at half past six, after traveling seven and one-half leagues in the same number of hours.
Sunday, May 5 SP -- At half past six we continued our journey to the east for two and one-half leagues, when we came to the beginning of the valley of Señor San Joseph, along which we traveled to the east-southeast three more leagues, halting at eleven o'clock on its river, at the place where the canyon of San Patricio joins it. Up this canyon we again set out on the march at half past one, and having completed it, going mainly to the east and east-southeast, in which direction it begins, we halted at half past six, having traveled six leagues in five hours, which, together with the foregoing, made twelve leagues in ten hours.
On the march which we made this morning along the skirts of some hills, several villages of heathen, which are united to harvest their grass seeds, discovered us very close to them. Their women and children fled to the tops of the hills, but the men, who must have been a few less than a hundred, presented themselves armed a bow shot away. I made signs that they should be quiet and that I did not mean to do them any damage. Thereupon many of them put down their arms, especially the one who seemed to be their chief, and in this way they followed us for a distance. -- From the river named to San Patricio, 177 1/2 leagues.
Monday, May 6 SP -- A little before half past six we set forth to the east-southeast to cross the rough country of the valley of San Patricio, which lasted for two and one-half leagues, after which we descended to the valley of El Príncipe. Crossing this valley in two and one-half leagues we came to the opening or pass of San Carlos. From here we continued, descending its ridge. Having done this, we descended its principal canyon, which runs generally to the southeast, with some turns to the east-southeast, and arrived at four in the afternoon at Santa Catharina, having traveled only ten leagues in nine and one-half hours, because most of the terrain, especially from the pass to this place, is of bad footing for the riding animals. In passing today through San Carlos, and on our arrival here, we encountered in the two places more than a hundred heathen, who comported themselves as shyly as usual, not wishing to come to us, but fleeing instead to the summits of the hills. Today there was a fog so laden with water that it looked like rain, and a very fierce wind which continued all night. -- From the river or lake of San Francisco to Santa Catharina, 187 1/2 leagues.
Tuesday, May 7 SP -- At five we resumed our way down the valley, which runs to the east-southeast. In this direction we made six leagues, reaching San Gregorio at a quarter past nine, where we halted for a short siesta and to give water to our riding animals. Having accomplished both of these things, we continued our march to the east-southeast for four leagues, after which we made three and one-half more to the east, arriving at half-past seven o'clock at night at San Sebastián, having traveled thirteen and one-half leagues in a little less than ten hours. At this place we left the valley which we have followed from San Carlos to here. -- From the river named to San Sebastián, 201 leagues.
Wednesday, May 8 SP -- For the purpose of making our transit from here to the Colorado River by a more direct route, and for the fourth time to seek a watering place in this stretch, I decided to travel a part of the afternoon in order that the riding animals may go forth watered, so that they can go without drinking until morning if we do not find the water which we are seeking. We set forth at a quarter to three toward the east, and traveled about a league and a half, at the end of which we came to a fair-sized spring of turgid water. From here we continued east-southeast, over level land without pasturage or any large trees, leaving at our right the hills or dunes of sand which at other times have greatly troubled us. Then, traveling about ten and one-half more leagues, at half past eleven at night we halted to give some rest and refreshment to our riding animals because now is the time of severe heat. The animals had nothing to eat except some little sprouts of evil taste, although they had traveled today for a distance of twelve leagues in eleven and three-fourths hours. -- From the river named to a forlorn plain, 213 leagues.
Thursday, May 9 SP -- At five we resumed our march, continuing in the same direction and for the same purpose. Some points of sand dunes were crossed, and at a quarter to twelve, having traveled about eight leagues, we came to the wells of El Carrizal, alias de Alegría, having found no other water. Here we halted for a siesta because the heat of the sun was extreme. We watered our animals at its wells, which we found abundant, and at five in the afternoon we set out from them because there was no pasturage, in order to reach the Colorado River, which we did at the site of Laguna de Santa Olaya , having spent seven hours in traveling five leagues, with a loss of two or more, because with the darkness of the night and the thickness of the brush in these neighborhoods, it cost great effort to find the lake. -- From the river named to Laguna de Santa Olaya at the Colorado River, 226 leagues.
The Indians of San Sebastián have come to pledge peace with those of this river, notwithstanding that for some time back they have enjoyed this advantage. Indeed, the Yumas have kept their promise in this particular with the greatest exactness ever since I urged them to do so. It is too bad that this advantage is not sought for everybody on the road which we have opened from Sonora to California, for, besides the benefit which all the Indians would receive, we ourselves would profit by it for communication by letter from one place to the other. The matter consists merely in putting two tribes in the same state as the others, namely, the tribes of Santa Catharina and the valley of San Joseph, both of which are allied with and related to those of missions San Diego and San Gabriel. I, for my part, would have had this matter well under way if I had found an interpreter who could make himself understood, but I have not been able to obtain one.
Friday, May 10 SP -- The marches just accomplished, lacking in pasturage and good water and very long, have been very hard on our mounts, and in order that with good pasturage and good water they might recuperate somewhat, I decided to remain this afternoon at this lake. As soon as day dawned the natives of the place began to come to see us, sending the news of my arrival all along the river, and giving me to understand that my coming has pleased them. This tribe, which I consider the most worthy of all who live on the river, as soon as they saw me, had the hospitality and the generosity to bring me in abundance maize, beans, hard-shelled squashes and others of their foods, without asking any recompense for them, but of course I have paid them. At three o'clock in the afternoon we set forth up the Colorado River, continuing to the east and the north, in which direction it goes, and, making turns and going through various villages of the Cahuen tribe which we passed, we arrived at half past six at Laguna de los Coxas, where we halted for the night, having traveled four leagues in three and one-half hours. -- From the river named to Laguna de los Cojas, 230 leagues.
Saturday, May 11 SP -- A little before five o'clock we resumed our march, continuing along the same river in the directions just mentioned, passing many villages, whose people in large numbers and of both sexes followed us, very joyful, from one village to another, until at eleven o'clock we reached the little pass of La Concepción, where we halted, having traveled seven and one-half leagues in six hours. -- From the river named to the junction of the Colorado and the Gila, 237 1/2 leagues.
At this place I met Father Thomás Eziarc, one of the two friars sent by his Excellency, the Viceroy, to remain at this river until I should return, for the instruction and catechism of the tribes which inhabit it. Since they will make their report to the viceroy separately, I omit it and will only say that to me they report very favorably and in keeping with what was expected of these heathen, especially the Yuma tribe, and their Captain Palma, who has not left the side of the father mentioned during all the time that he has been here, serving him and presenting him with everything beyond belief; as well as cooperating by his example in the principal purpose for which the father has been sent here, hoping with him for the establishment of the true faith in this region, which also has been requested by other tribes allied with the Yumas.
Father Fray Francisco Garcés , that tireless soul, with only one servant, has traveled through many tribes of this river, above and below this place and apart from it. He also will give his own report. I did not find him here, but I did hear that he is with the tribe of the Galchedunes, the first of whom may be fifteen or twenty leagues from here.
Sunday, May 12 SP -- At five I sent a messenger with a letter from me for Father Garcés, telling him of my return and that I am waiting to see if he wishes to go out with me, summoning him, in case he should be at the place where they have said, for the 14th of the present month, and assuring him that in case he does not come I shall leave him various provisions for his subsistence, as he by a letter requests me.
At night Palma, captain of the Yumas, came accompanied by two subordinates to beg me to take him to Mexico as I promised, to present him to his Excellency the Viceroy , so that he may repeat in person the petition that he may be permitted to become a vassal of his Majesty, and that he be granted ministers to instruct his tribe and others, his allies, in the true faith, to which they are ready to submit themselves. In response to his request I told him to do what he might think best and advise me. To this he replied that he had already advised and consulted with his people, and that they gladly agreed; and that he was therefore presenting me his two subalterns mentioned, having already charged them to conserve the peace which they now enjoy, the possession of their lands, and the crops which he has indicated to them for their better conservation and union during his absence; and that they had promised strictly to fulfill these orders, as well as everything which I might wish to command them.
Having advised concerning this matter with the two fathers who are with me, we agreed to the request mentioned, reporting this result to the petitioners, with the comment that, to provide for every contingency, at least three others of their people ought to accompany Captain Palma, in order that they may be witnesses to the good treatment which he may receive and of whatever else may take place. This decision, which had never been even imagined by any of them, was to them a matter of the greatest satisfaction and pleasure, and they agreed to put it into effect and did so. Likewise, about two hundred men showed their satisfaction by manifesting to me that their captain was going upon this journey with the approval of the tribe.
Monday, May 13 SP -- Yesterday I began assembling logs suitable for making a raft, because without one this river is impassable. Where it has three branches its current now is more than eight hundred varas wide. Although one might wish to cross here with this advantage, it is impossible because of the great Marsh es encountered before reaching it and after entering it, to which are added very dense thickets. So there is nothing else to do except to cross it at this place of La Concepción, and for a quarter of a league below, where the river is narrowed to about a hundred varas, although it has a very rapid current and dangerous whirlpools.
Having launched the raft and concluded at ten o'clock the loading of some people and a part of our equipage, everything was guided by twenty-three Yumas, who labored very hard against the rapid current to reach the other side. It was even more difficult to return, and this was not accomplished until half past three in the afternoon. At four o'clock we dispatched another raftload, and the force of the current drove it much farther down than the first, and its guides found it so impossible to bring it back whole that they took it apart in order to bring it back tomorrow in pieces.
Tuesday, May 14 SP -- In the morning the river was much higher than yesterday. For this reason, and since our raftsmen raised objections because of the great force of the stream, in order to get all our train across I decided to proceed to taking it over in small portions or pieces which could find room in baskets of mud and willows which they furnished. Even the women of this tribe, who possess greater dexterity in swimming than the men, offered to take them over. This operation was begun at seven o'clock in the morning. There was one woman who carried a fanega of beans and asked for her labor only two strings of glass beads, although five would not have been excessive. Nevertheless they were more than satisfied, it may be said. For this pay they swam in going and returning more than fifteen hundred yards, and yet they lost no time in returning to the labor, that is, the few who took part in it, for there were not enough suitable vessels for more. In twelve trips they finished the carrying.
At a quarter to six two rafts were completed and they now loaded them with the rest of our men and the things which could not be reduced to small pieces. The smaller raft was guided by thirty Yumas, and the larger one, on which I embarked at that time with the two fathers, the commissary, and other soldiers, was accompanied by about forty. When it left the shore it sank a little, and immediately more than two hundred persons, including some women, who were watching us nearby, jumped in to aid us. After this we continued our passage, which took us only twelve and a half minutes, in which time we must have sailed more than about eight hundred varas. As soon as we left the river we went to our encampment, which was about an eighth of a league away. Here we reassembled everything which was already on this side and here we spent the night.
Wednesday, May 15 SP -- As soon as it was daylight I gave orders to begin to send back to the other side the logs of one of our rafts, so that they might bring to this side for me two soldiers and a boy of mine who yesterday, at the time when the raft in which they were accompanying me sank, returned frightened to land, at the risk of drowning, if the land had not been so close and there had been no one to aid in pulling them out, for, possessed by their fear, they jumped in with their clothing on and with other impedimenta which would have contributed to their destruction.
I have said on another occasion that by keeping the tribes which dwell on this large-volumed river attached to us, we shall be able to cross it without great difficulty, but that otherwise it will be almost impossible, and I now assert this still more emphatically, since with the aid of their native experts it has cost us four days of toil. Nearly everything has been done voluntarily by these natives, and yet I am able to testify that in all this journey I have not been so overheated or so tired out anywhere else as here in effecting the crossing, and without their help it probably would have taken me twice as long.
Likewise I have stated that only at the place where the Gila joins the Colorado, crossing the two separately, is there a ford in the dry season. This is only in the months from December to the middle of February, for all the rest of the year the Colorado River is unfordable even if not in flood. And when the flood comes the best crossing is here, they all say, for as I have said before there is the advantage that here it runs narrowed between knolls and hills for about a quarter of a league. The rest of the way, downstream, it widens out in its various branches as much as five leagues, and all require rafts, for although not all may be deep they are impassable because of the miry quality of the mud. Just now it must already be about three leagues wide in those places, and the greatest flood has not yet come, for that occurs from now to the middle or the end of July.
The fertility of the lands of this river we have witnessed on two former occasions, and now also, for besides the abundant harvest of wheat which they are gathering, its natives still have many kinds of beans, maize, hard-shelled squashes and other foods.
At half past eight the men and the remainder of the baggage finished crossing, and I therefore decided to leave this river, to continue my march along the road which runs to the pueblos nearest to the Gulf of California, having heard that there is water in the places through which I passed on the first journey, and wishing to save more than sixty leagues in order to get on my way to Mexico .
A little before twelve o'clock they reported to me from the other side that one of our men had arrived there. Assuming at once that he must be some deserter, I ordered them to bring him over, and this having been done it turned out as I have said. In fact he is one of those whom I had sentenced for this very offence to work on the fort of San Francisco, but by disposition of Commander Moncada during my absence on the exploration for the location of the mentioned fort three of them were transferred to the presidio of San Diego. From there, he declares, he fled on the 5th of the present month, for he was not kept in any prison. He says that he had no difficulties in his journey except that an attempt was made to kill him by ten heathen of a number whom he met. He came unarmed, and was lost for three days off the road which he was following, but he did not lack water to drink during that time. He again found his way and came out at Laguna de Santa Olaya, which he says he judges would be about thirty leagues from San Diego, with watering places accommodated to the transit. I asked him in what condition he left the Indians of San Diego, and he says that now, in the absence of Commander Rivera, they have arrested the Indian Francisco, prime mover of the rebellion which took place in that district, and that others have come to give themselves up, especially those of the village of Las Chollas, and that besides these he heard it said that all were disposed to do the same.
When we were ready to march, a great many heathen of both sexes came to bid us goodbye, for they know how to do this, as well as to salute by shaking hands. Among them came the two subalterns who are to remain with the powers of Captain Palma. All urged me to come back bringing fathers and Spaniards, and they repeated the same to their captain. I charged them not to forget to obey my orders and those of their general, so that thereby they might prove themselves deserving of the favor which they were asking, and which on my part I promised to solicit for them from the charity of his Excellency. At five o'clock in the afternoon we set forth on the march, ascending the Gila River toward the east and east-southeast, in which direction we traveled about five leagues, until half past nine, when we halted to pass the night by the Cerros del Cajón . -- From the river named to the Cerros del Cajón on the Gila River, 242 1/2 leagues.
Thursday, May 16 SP -- A little before five o'clock we continued along the same river and in the same direction of east-northeast, until we had covered three leagues, after which we traveled four more and reached Laguna Salada on the same river, making a total of seven leagues traveled in five and a half hours. Here we halted for the night because it was a site with some pasturage and because here we have to leave the river. Nearly to this place the river is settled with Yumas, whereas two years ago, on account of the wars which they waged with the Cocomaricopas, there was not a footprint of either tribe to be seen in a stretch of more than thirty leagues. But now one finds the roads well opened and sees their people very frequently, a benefit which has been brought to them by the peace established between them. -- From the river named to Laguna Salada on the Gila River, 249 1/2 leagues.
Friday, May 17 SP -- Since the next watering place was quite distant, and it was not easy to reach it before eleven o'clock, when the sun overcomes men and animals, because it is extremely hot, I decided to start from this place in the afternoon, and did so at three o'clock, going southeast for about two leagues over good terrain. This continuing, we marched to the east-southeast for six more leagues and arrived at half past eleven at night at the Pozos de en Medio, which afforded some water for drinking, and where we halted for the rest of the night, having traveled eight leagues in the same number of hours. By digging, these wells afford water for a large number of saddle animals even in the dry season like the present. They have plentiful pasturage, which is likewise found all along the road which we have followed. For this reason and because it is free from stones it is always better than the one which up to now has been traveled to the junction of the rivers. -- From the river named to the Pozos de en Medio, 257 1/2 leagues.
Saturday, May 18 SP -- At five we resumed our march, going east-southeast over the road which runs from these wells to the Tinajas de la Candelaria, where we arrived at half past nine, having traveled five leagues. Going to examine them I found that they had plenty of water even for more animals than those which we had with us, which they took to water twice. The sun being now low, at six o'clock in the afternoon we continued our march, which was made for three leagues to the east-southeast over the regular road opened on our first journey. Having finished this distance and the crossing of some hills, and leaving these and the road which we had followed, we turned to the east for about nine leagues when we arrived at Puerto Blanco. -- From the river named to Puerto Blanco, 266 1/2 leagues.Sunday, May 19 SP -- Continuing our march from the last-named site without interruption during the whole night, going southeast three leagues, then three others to the east-southeast, making a total of eighteen leagues in eighteen and a half hours, we arrived at half past eleven o'clock at the Arroyo de Sonóitac and the site of El Carrizal, where we found water and fairly good pasturage in abundance and where we halted to remain the rest of this day. In this day's march and the two preceding we have lost six saddle animals, most of them being those which I left at the Colorado River, where they had improved very little in flesh. -- From the river named to Arroyo del Carrisal or de Sonóitac, 284 1/2 leagues.
Monday, May 20 SP -- At a quarter past five we set out from El Carrizal and traveled to the east eight leagues in six hours, until we reached the ruined mission of Sonóitac. Remaining there until half past five in the afternoon, we resumed our march, taking the road which goes to Quitobac. On this road we made three leagues to the southeast and south-southeast along the skirts of some hills, where at half past eight we halted for the night at a site with good pasturage, completing today's journey of eleven leagues in the same number of hours. -- From the river named to the place halfway to Quitobac, 295 1/2 leagues.
Tuesday, May 21 SP -- At half past four we set forth on our way by the same road, still along the hills which we bore on our right, and which have forced us to travel in general to the south. In this direction we made five leagues, whereby in the same number of hours we reached the village of Quitobac. From here, after the greatest heat of the sun had passed, we set out at half past four in the afternoon and traveled east-southeast for two and a half leagues, skirting some small hills on the right. At the end of this distance we continued southeast for another league and a half and then turned south and southeast for two more, having passed the hills mentioned. Then, immediately entering a valley without water or pasturage, we traveled over it to the southeast for about three and a half leagues, and halted at half past eleven o'clock at night at a place with pasturage in the flat of San Juan de Mata, having traveled twelve hours and made fourteen leagues during the whole day. -- From the river named to the flat of San Juan de Mata, 209 1/2 leagues.
Wednesday, May 22 SP -- A little before half past five we resumed our march, going southeast and likewise following a nearby chain of medium-sized hills on the right. Having made five and a half leagues, a little after eleven o'clock we reached the wells of San Eduardo de la Arivaipia, which beforehand I had ordered opened. We found in them much more water than we needed, and here we halted until five o'clock in the afternoon. Then we continued our march over a made road, on which we traveled six leagues, arriving at eleven o'clock at night at the flat of San Yldephonzo where we halted to rest for the remainder of the night, having traveled eleven and a half leagues in almost eleven hours. -- From the river named to the flat of San Yldephonzo, 221 leagues.
At this place it became necessary to redouble our care and vigilance, since it is in the path of the Apaches, and because the Pápago Indians whom I have left behind have heard of frequent robberies and murders made by them at the mission of Caborca and neighboring pueblos, which until the present year it may be said were free from such occurrences, or at least were in very different circumstances.
Thursday, May 23 SP -- At five o'clock we resumed our journey over a continuous road to the southeast, with some slight turns to the east-southeast. In these directions we traveled six leagues and arrived at twelve o'clock at the mission of Caborca, where we halted to spend the day, having made the six leagues in the same number of hours. -- From the river named to the mission of Caborca, 227 leagues.
At four o'clock in the afternoon I sent a letter by two of my soldiers to the captain of the presidio of El Altar, distant from here eight or nine leagues, asking him for some saddle animals to enable me to go forward, since the greater part of ours are now in very bad condition because of the great distance which they have covered. The bearers carried orders to return tomorrow by midday, so that we might continue our march in the afternoon. The missionary fathers of this pueblo have confirmed the reports which the Pápago Indians gave me concerning the murders and robberies perpetrated by the Apaches in this vicinity, to which they have added other and greater atrocities that have occurred in various places, especially on the way from the mining camp of La Cieneguilla to the presidio of San Miguel, over which I have to travel.
Saturday, May 25 SP -- At ten o'clock in the morning the soldiers returned with the aid which I had asked for. At three o'clock in the afternoon we set forth on the camino real to La Cieneguilla, which runs east-southeast all the way from here to the presidio of San Miguel de Horcacitas. Having followed it until eleven o'clock at night, and traveled eight leagues, we halted at that hour to rest a while.
Sunday, May 26 SP -- At four o'clock we resumed our march over good terrain, the same as yesterday afternoon, and having covered about six leagues, by nine o'clock we arrived at the Real de la Cieneguilla, where we halted to pass this day. -- From the river named to the Real de la Cieneguilla, 247 leagues.
This mining camp, as is well known, and that of San Antonio de la Huerta, are the only ones in the province of Sonora which continue their production of gold, because both of them are free from the piracies of the Apaches. The first one even now produces weekly from sixty to sixty-five marks of gold, the second, as they tell me, a little less, and if these enemies would permit laborers to enter, and especially to the first one, its output would be much greater. But these cruel barbarians deprive us of these benefits and of even greater ones which we should enjoy, even in the farthest interior, it is more than probable. Within a short time, I believe, they will close the roads to this Cieneguilla, which even now is traveled with imponderable risk, so that very few have the courage to undertake it. To this camp they have to bring from the interior and the exterior of the provinces the provisions and other effects of commerce necessary for its subsistence, and if they are not obtained it is inevitable that it will come to a complete stop, as has happened to others equal if not better, which for the same causes are deserted and unworked, with notable injury to the royal estate and to their inhabitants.
Monday, May 27 SP -- This morning advice was given by the interior pueblos that a party of more than a hundred mounted hostile Apaches had taken the roads which come to this real. For this reason I thought it best to wait here today to ascertain what may result, in order to watch the party with the troops which are with me.
Tuesday, May 28 SP -- As soon as it was daylight I sent out the party of ten soldiers who are with me to explore round about this real, but they returned at midday and reported that they had not seen any signs of the enemy.
Wednesday, May 29 SP -- At three o'clock in the afternoon I set forth from this real, where I was joined by two pack trains of mules, that I might escort them, and with them I camped after nightfall without any mishap at Cerro Prieto, to which we had traveled about seven leagues in the same number of hours. -- From the river named to Cerro Prieto, 248 leagues.
Thursday, May 30 SP -- Having moved our train, at five o'clock in the morning we resumed our march and arrived at eleven o'clock at El Tecolote. Here we remained until two o'clock, when we finished watering our mounts, which was done with due precaution because we noted on our arrival that four enemies had done the same a little while before. Then, setting out at that hour, we traveled until vespers and halted for the night in the neighborhood of La Tortuga, having traveled to this place today ten leagues in the same number of hours. -- From the river named to La Tortuga, 258 leagues.
Friday, May 31 SP -- A little before five o'clock we raised our train and traveled five leagues, as far as El Pozo de Crisanto , remaining there until three o'clock in the afternoon, when we continued our march for five more leagues, concluding today's journey after nightfall at La Mesa. At the time when we halted for the night the rear guard discovered a band of enemies who in deep silence crossed our road to hide themselves in a nearby wood. With this report it was necessary for us to take up arms, and in this way we passed the night, all the time expecting an attack. -- From the river named to La Mesa, 268 leagues.
Saturday, June 1 SP -- As soon as it was broad daylight I set out with four soldiers to reconnoiter the country, but I found nothing more than the tracks of about thirty of the enemies mentioned, who were headed in a different direction from the way we were going. Therefore I continued on this road with my train for two leagues, at the end of which I reached the presidio of San Miguel de Horcacitas , whence I shall continue my march to Mexico, as I have been ordered by his Excellency the Viceroy, and where I conclude this diary on the day and year mentioned. -- From the river or lake of San Francisco to the presidio of San Miguel de Horcacitas, where this diary ends, 270 leagues, the total, going and coming, amounting to 823 leagues, to which are to be added seventy leagues which are estimated from here to the presidio of Tubac. JUAN BAP.TA DE ANZA (Rubric).