Diary of Juan Bautista de Anza

Colonizing Expedition, 1775-1776

Monday, April 1 SP -- At seven o'clock we set forth on the march continuing northwest along the sierra mentioned, and having traveled about two and a half leagues and crossed two arroyos with a little water and a growth of trees which reaches to the shores of the southern estuary, we came abreast of a large grove of pines or redwoods, and after about another league and a half of travel we found ourselves in front of the mouth of the port of San Francisco. We saw distinctly the two points which form it, and farther inland, and as a result we concluded that the estuary is not five leagues wide, as they have supposed. Indeed, I think that it would be scarcely four leagues.

From the last site mentioned we continued north-northwest, over some hills, to cross which we must have gone about half a league. From them we descended to some plains two leagues wide, whence we saw the interior islands of the port, and observed that in front of the beginning of these hills the northern estuary continues to the north. Having completed this plain we climbed other hills from which we descended to a deep arroyo, without much water or many trees, where we found a village of about a hundred persons, to whom I gave the customary gifts. From here we continued over other hills, going part of the time to the north and part to the northeast, keeping close to the coast of the estuary, and having traveled about another league we came to another village like the foregoing. From here, continuing in the same way over hills and along the coast for still another league, we halted at a quarter past four in the afternoon to camp for the night in a little valley with stagnant water and very little firewood, having traveled about ten leagues in as many hours. -- From Tubac to the neighborhood of the river commonly called San Francisco, and its disemboguement into this port, 379 leagues.

Where we are camped we are very close to the place where the Rio de San Francisco empties into the harbor of the same name, and near a village that is larger than the two mentioned, judging from the number of men who have assembled to see us. Among these and all the persons of their class whom we have carefully observed today, we have not noticed any one with white or pink skin such as apparently were seen during the first journey through this region. Indeed, in color and hair they are not different from those seen hitherto. Those along the Channel of Santa Barbara and especially on the Colorado River are fairer than these, and these here have sparser beards than those on the other side of the estuary. But the reports which they give of their generosity we have seen verified, for they have given us two kinds of cooked roots of the sorts they use. Likewise, their language is different from that on the other side of the southern estuary, and they wear their hair long and tied up on the top of their heads, as was observed among those of yesterday; and they are all equally poor.

The sites which we have passed yesterday and today, are provided with water, it is true, but excepting that of Guadalupe, both the sites and the water are very different from what was said of them in the first expedition, and I do not consider any one of the places suitable for a settlement, or that any one would be adapted to irrigation on even a small scale. Indeed, besides the scarcity of water, the arroyos are very deep. They have very little highland, and the lowlands generally are flooded by the tides. It might be that if the interiors of the valleys were explored they would be found useful for the purpose, and, notwithstanding what has been said, the fields are as green with grass and as thickly covered with various wild flowers as those farther back. The march all day has been very painful because of the sancudo fly, which is as plentiful here as on the coasts of the Tierra Caliente. About half way on the road today we saw one of those deer eight spans high which are found along here, but although the soldiers chased it they were not able to overtake it.

Tuesday, April 2 SP -- At a quarter past seven we broke camp to continue our journey, which we began by going east over some hills, and at less than a quarter of a league we came to a village of about five hundred souls, from which a little before we set out ten heathen came adorned with plumes and garlands of flowers to invite us to pass through their settlement. They came to our camp singing, and in the same way they continued to their village, from which all the people came out to welcome us, following with some order three singers, who placed in the tops of the trees three bunches of feathers and some strings of feathers of various colors, which were moved and raised up by the wind. Both sexes danced and gave presents of their edibles. This gift and the former one I repaid by giving glass beads to big and little, with which they were pleased.

From this village we continued over hills which from here forward were higher and steeper, until a league was passed, when we descended to the junction of the river and the estuary, where we halted to take the latitude. Having noted with careful attention the distance of this river, and its width where it empties into the estuary, we concluded that it is not a quarter of a league wide. It is so quiet that we saw no movement in a little raft of tule on which two heathen were fishing. On similar rafts five others crossed from this side of the river to the other in less than a quarter of an hour. We measured some poles with which in the middle of the river they had anchored the raft which was fishing, and they were thirteen varas long, from which the depth may be inferred.

While waiting for the hour to make the observation and to march I carefully explored the bank of this river, because I was struck by the fact that I did not see any flotsam or trees on it as I have noted in all the rivers that I have seen. And besides, I observed that there is a rise above the present water of only about two or three varas at the top of which there is a deposit of fresh water mussel shells. In my care I charged everybody to tell me if they noted whether there might be a higher rise, and if they saw any débris which the water would naturally cast off, but during the whole day nothing more was noted than what has been stated and that the water is unfit for drinking because it is so salty.

Having made our observation and mapped the mouth, with the island which is in it, we continued our march, going east and east-northeast for about a league over some high hills, because the bank of the river afforded no passage, after which we continued another league east-southeast and southeast. After going two leagues along the river one sees to the north, on the other side of it, a sierra very thickly covered with snow which must be thirty or forty leagues away. From here we saw that the river begins to widen to about half a league; and going forward in addition to the leagues mentioned a little more than a quarter of a league over land more distant, in order to escape the marshes, we traveled about two more leagues to the southeast, with some small turns to the south, and at five o'clock in the afternoon we halted in order to pass the night at an arroyo of salty water in pools which on the first journey they called Santa Angela de Fulgino, having traveled five leagues in as many hours. -- From Tubac to Santa Angela de Fulgino, 384 leagues.

For half a league up the river we kept very close to the sierra which we have had on our right and which we skirted until yesterday. And we now again came to have it on the same side, so improved in abundance of firewood, and timber of oak and live oak, that all its canyons are well provided with one and the other, the very opposite of what is seen on the other side of the river, where in four leagues we have not seen a single tree.

During the halt which we made before noon the heathen, whom we have already said were fishing, sold us a fish two and one-eighth varas long, unknown to everybody and entirely lacking in scales or interior bones, for the only bones it had were those of the head, and between the skin and the flesh there were some very perfect stars painted on the skull as if with dots. In place of cartilage and other bony substances they had some nerves or tendons. Their eyes were gilded but very small. Notwithstanding that we did not know the fish we ate it and found it very palatable and tender, especially in certain places where it had lean meat just like beef.

When we halted this afternoon about thirty heathen came from a village which we left behind and from another which we have immediately ahead. I gave them presents as soon as they came, and they repaid us by beginning to steal with hands and feet on the least show of carelessness. For this reason and because it was now getting dark I told them to say good-night. They objected, and at last I had to order them with severity to go. Then one of them became so bold as to threaten me with a club which he carried in his hands, but I took it away from him, and hit him with it twice, and this was enough to make them all run, and to cause the bold one to give me to understand that he was going away to sleep.

Wednesday, April 3 SP -- A little after seven we set forth on the march, leaving on the right the sierra mentioned and going to the east-northeast. We crossed a good and grass-covered plain for about a league, after which we went about half a league to the northeast over some hills, from which we saw the three arms of the river noted by those who first discovered it, but whereas they mention only three islands we have seen seven low ones.

We now descended to another plain which extends to the river, but although we wished to go directly to it this was not possible because many marshes intervened. Going around these, we turned again to the east-northeast, with some short turns to the east, over a very sterile and dry plain which must extend two and a half leagues, at the end of which we came to a village of about four hundred persons. Many of them ran hastily to see us, and as they did so they placed strings of white feathers on some poles for us as a sign of peace. I gave them presents and they reciprocated with theirs, especially with fine pieces of salmon already cooked in a pit. They were on the banks of the river, whose water we tasted, and it was now very fresh, but we noted that it was changeable.

From here we traveled about another league to the east-southeast along the same plain, which has some groves of live oaks and oaks, and at the end of this distance we ascended a high hill to see what we could see. The first thing we noticed was that the river which we had thought would turn to the east, continued to the east-northeast, and that from here upstream it appeared to us to be more like a large lake than a river. This impression was supported by the fact that up to now we had not seen the current which was reported on the first journey, and that the water appeared to have an ebb and flow, and also by the fact that we had not found any flotsam, and that the surf continued. From that hill we saw to the east and to the north an interminable plain without any groves, and to the northeast the snow-covered sierra which we mentioned yesterday. Descending from the hill we traveled northeast for half a league, going to the river to halt for the night. On its banks, in a green grove of live oaks and oaks, we pitched our camp at four o'clock in the afternoon, at an abandoned village which I called San Ricardo, having traveled about six leagues in nine hours.

It is to be noted that when he discovered this river Commander Faxes returned before reaching the preceding village.

As soon as we halted we went to the bank of the river, and threw logs into it, the largest possible, and instead of carrying them away the river returned them to the place where we were. We still noted a surf in the river. And having set up stakes at the edge of the waves we observed that from half-past five in the afternoon until a quarter past ten, sixteen and one-half yards of beach were uncovered, and that the water fell three and a quarter yards. For this reason and those mentioned before we have been led to doubt whether this is a river, or a lake formed by the water of the tulares, so famous in these establishments, which are found to the north and east of the missions of San Luís and San Antonio, and extending toward this place. I have therefore decided to ascend this river or lake still farther, to see if we can ascertain a little more clearly what it is, for the information of the Superior Government, since we are here, in view of the lack of opportunities in this country for such explorations.

We have noted that the fish most abundant at present from the mouth of the bay to here are the salmon. They are very red in color, and are tender, and none of those we have seen is less than five quarters long. Today we met twenty-two heathen loaded with these fish and from carrying four apiece they were almost bushed. At the village which we passed there were so many that it seems impossible that its residents could eat them, and yet part of the inhabitants were in their little tule rafts engaged in catching more.

Today we saw and passed very close to about twenty-five deer, from six to seven spans high, but in spite of all the efforts which the soldiers made they were not able to get any of them. The heathen who yesterday molested us came out today to our road to give us presents of their edibles. I repaid them and they returned happy to their dwellings. Those whom we have seen today along the way appear to be different in language from those further back, but in nothing else. -- From Tubac to San Ricardo, 390 leagues.

Thursday, April 4 SP -- At a quarter past seven we set out on the march toward the east, with the intention of ascending the banks of this river or lake for two days, unless we should be able to cross it, but after we had gone a short distance we were forced by an estuary of water and marshes to leave the bank, and because it interfered with our march we left it at our left and continued to go around it to the east-northeast. In this direction we traveled about three leagues, at the end of which the water and the marshes kept getting bigger.

To get around them I made such efforts as were possible, both on foot and on horseback, but the water and the marshes alike prevented our going to the east-northeast, the way we ought to have gone, forcing us in the opposite direction, that is, to the east and southeast. In these directions we traveled about five leagues, at the end of which we came to a greater abundance of water running to the river or lake from which we had come. And as we beheld more water and more marshes in all the immense plain which we saw to the east and to the north, the two soldiers who belong to this country assured me now that this water comes from the tulares which run in those directions and are distant twenty-five or thirty leagues from the missions of San Luís and San Antonio, and which even in dry season they have found unfordable.

This information, together with what I had observed, caused me to think that what has been regarded as a river is merely a great lake, formed from the waters supplied to it by the tulares and the Sierra Nevada which I have mentioned hereinbefore, and which is not less than thirty leagues away, because this is the width of the tulares. Since it was impossible for me to conquer these tulares without going around their head they forced me to change my plan, and at two in the afternoon I decided to return. -- From Tubac to the place where I left the river or lake of San Francisco, to return to Sonora, 398 leagues.

For this reason I set out to the south-southwest, and having traveled in this direction across a sterile plain for about a league and a half, we then began to ascend some hills belonging to the sierras which we mentioned yesterday on our right. Having finished these hills and the sierra with another league and a half of travel, we descended to other hills, at the head of the valley of Santa Angela de Fulgino. Following these for another league and a half, at half past five in the afternoon we halted for the night on the same hills, at the first water and firewood which we found, having traveled twelve and one-half leagues in ten hours.

All the country which we have traversed today, with the exception of that which has water, and the stretch which we have traveled over the last hills, is barren of any pasturage or brush or trees, and apparently it continues in the same way toward the east. We assume that it is for this reason that we have not seen any Indians today in the marshes and tulares, but we know from the smokes that there are Indians, although they do not come out to this region, for we did not even see any tracks. We attempted to go to the nearest village, but it was not possible because of the mires and the water of various and which up to now has never been crossed in this region. We began the transit by ascending two leagues to the east, then continuing for another league east-southeast, and likewise southeast, whereby we descended to a valley, which ran in the last-mentioned direction for about another league and a half. Then, because it became very narrow, we ascended some brush-covered hills in the same direction, which lasted another league. We now descended to some small plains which were about two leagues long, and at the end of them we halted at five in the afternoon where there was some water in pools and very little pasturage, having traveled seven leagues in ten hours. -- From the river or lake of San Francisco to the center of the Sierra del Chasco, 11 leagues.

Saturday, April 6 SP -- At a quarter to seven we began crossing the divide, going to the south-southeast, and having immediately ascended some high hills we descended a canyon which ran in the same direction and contained water, along which we traveled about two leagues, but as it ended in a fall it was necessary to go around it by some steep and difficult trails which lasted for about a league. Having finished this league, we again descended to the same canyon, which now afforded us fairly good footing for about another league. From here forward in the same direction and until three more leagues were covered, the difficulties of the march were even greater, because if we traveled along the bottom there were many stones and much water. When one or the other became impassable, we turned to the slopes, down which we almost slid. In this way at half past four in the afternoon we came out to another valley, in which at this hour we halted for the night, having traveled seven leagues in a little less than ten hours. -- From the river or lake of San Francisco to the emergence from the sierra mentioned, 18 leagues.

To this place, as well as to all of the foregoing country, we have given the name of Sierra del Chasco, because of the joke it has played on us by its difficult passage due to its width, which nobody had anticipated. From here we have recognized the road by which we came, and on finishing the sierra we shall not be very distant from it. The range shows signs of having silver ore. It is well covered with oaks, live oaks, walnuts, pine, and hazelnuts, and in the principal valley which cuts it I think water will always be found. It is not inhabited by heathen at present, but in the seasons of the fruits mentioned some Indians go to gather them. Of these people only one was seen yesterday afternoon.

Sunday, April 7 SP -- At a quarter past seven we began to ascend the valley in which we spent the night. We followed it to the south-southeast for a league and a half, when it ended in some low hills. Crossing these in another half league, we descended to the valley of San Pasqual, which we also crossed by going two and one-half leagues to the south. We now rejoined the road which we took in coming, and followed it for another league and a half to the south until we forded the Pájaro River. From here we continued southwest for another league until we crossed the arroyo of San Benito, and having ascended its steep slope, from here we continued in the same direction until we had passed some canyons and a valley extending for about two leagues, and from this valley we came out to the plain of the river of Monte Rey. Over this plain we traveled to the west-southwest and southwest for three leagues, crossed the river named, and halted on its banks at a quarter past five to camp for the night, having traveled twelve leagues in ten hours. -- From the river named to the river of Monte Rey, 30 leagues.

Monday, April 8 SP -- A little after seven we took the road by which we had come, following it to the west-southwest for three and one-half leagues. Continuing for another half league to the west, we reached the presidio of Monte Rey at half past ten in the morning, having traveled four leagues in three and one-half hours. This afternoon I went to the mission of Carmelo, both to get some relief for my leg, for I still suffered greatly, and because there was a place to lodge there suitable for this purpose, while at the presidio there are no better quarters than my field tent. -- From the San Francisco River to the port and presidio of Monte Rey, 34 leagues.

From Tuesday to Friday, April 9,10,11 and 12 SP, I remained at this mission, and on this last day I sent five soldiers to the presidio of San Diego, with advice to the commander of these establishments, in order that he might be at the mission of San Gabriel from the 25th to the 26th of this month, to enable us to confer concerning the matters with which we both are entrusted. With regard to this advice and his coming we had made arrangements at the presidio when we bade each other good-bye.

Saturday, April 13 SP -- With very little improvement in my health I set forth from the mission of Carmelo for the presidio of Monte Rey with the purpose of returning to my province, and of turning over to Lieutenant Moraga the affairs of the expedition which has come under my command, in the absence of Commander Don Fernando Rivera y Moncada , who, as is stated, is at the presidio of San Diego.

Sunday, April 14 SP -- Having concluded my tasks, at two in the afternoon I began my return march in company with Father Fray Pedro Font, seven soldiers of my command, because two had gone to notify Commander Rivera and another had remained at the mission of San Gabriel ; the commissary who came with the expedition; six muleteers of the expedition, because the rest who came are remaining voluntarily, and four of them I left as deserters and thieves sentenced to work on the fort of San Francisco until his Excellency shall make some other disposition; two of the three cowboys who came, for the other likewise remained here; and four of my servants.

At two in the afternoon, then, I set forth over the same road by which I had come. We followed it to the east-southeast for four leagues, for the most part through some hills, from which we descended to the river of Monte Rey, where, in the place which they call Buenavista, at six in the afternoon we halted for the night, having traveled three hours and covered four leagues.

This day has been the saddest one experienced by this presidio since its founding. When I mounted my horse in the plaza, the people whom I have led from their fatherlands, to which I am returning, remembering the good or bad treatment which they have experienced at my hands while they have been under my orders, most of them, especially the feminine sex, came to me sobbing with tears, which they declared they were shedding more because of my departure than of their exile, filling me with compassion. They showered me with embraces, best wishes, and praises which I do not merit. But in rememberance of them, and of the gratitude which I feel to all, and the affection which I have had for them ever since I recruited them, and in eulogy of their faithfulness, for up to now I have not seen a single sign of desertion in anyone of those whom I brought to remain in this exile, I may be permitted to record this praise of a people who, as time goes on, will be very useful to the monarchy in whose service they have voluntarily left their relatives and their fatherland, which is all they have to lose.

Monday, April 15 SP -- At half past six we continued our way over the road mentioned, following it to the southeast. Having traveled about two leagues I met on his return the sergeant of the presidio of Monte Rey, whom on the 12th I detached from this presidio to take to that of San Diego the report which on that day I wrote to its commander, Don Fernando de Rivera. From Rivera he now delivered two letters, telling me that although he was following close behind, he had sent the sergeant ahead to deliver the letters to me. As soon as he handed them to me the sergeant said, in the presence of two fathers who were with me and several others in my company, that he wished to speak to me alone.

I went apart from the company indicated and the sergeant said to me: "Señor, my captain is becoming foolish and crazy, and his companions who are coming with him say the same. He has been excommunicated at the presidio of San Diego because he took the heathen Carlos from the church. Ever since he saw me I have experienced a thousand insults. He even deprived me of my office of sergeant, and he has done the same with the corporal and all the nine men who are with him. As soon as I met his Grace he asked me where I was going. When I told him that I had been sent by your Grace to take some letters to him, he replied, 'Well, Well! Go on back,' without accepting the letters. This was the day before yesterday, Saturday afternoon, before arriving at the mission of San Antonio. He passed that whole night without calling me for anything, but on Sunday, at the time for starting, he said, shouting: 'The letters from Don Juan, bring them to me!' I took them to him and as I delivered them I said to him, 'This one is from the Señor Lieutenant-colonel, and this one from Lieutenant Moraga.' To this he replied, 'All right!' and thrust them into his pocket sealed, just as they were when I delivered them. Immediately he gave me two others for your Grace, ordering me to deliver them as soon as I should meet you. "

After listening to this account I opened the letters, which are mixed with official and confidential matters, and in which he replies to my dispatches of the 13th instant. Their purport is to refuse to permit the establishment of the fort of San Francisco, even though I might make it possible to found it with fewer soldiers than those which came for this purpose, as shown by his official dispatches and my replies to them.

This incident past, I ordered the sergeant to pursue his journey to Monte Rey, which he did immediately. Continuing on my way from here, in the direction stated, and having traveled about a league, I met the commander, saluted him, and asked him politely for his health. To this he replied that he was having trouble in one leg. I expressed my regret for his illness, and, immediately putting spurs to his mule, he said "Good-bye," and passed on. I returned the compliment and said to him as he started, “Will you have the goodness to reply to the letter which I last wrote your Grace, addressing me in Mexico or wherever you wish?" His answer was, "Very well!" At this reply and this action I said to the reverend fathers who are with me, in a voice which he could plainly hear, "Will your Reverences please witness this occurrence and write me a certificate, so that it may be attested in the reports which I shall make to his Excellency ?"

Other things occurred which I might report to his Excellency, but in the little which I saw of this man I did not recognize the craziness which the sergeant indicated, but instead a haughty reserve. Aside from the mortification which I felt, I cared not so much for his impoliteness as I feared that his lack of respect for the superior orders of his Excellency, requiring that he should confer with me concerning the matters entrusted to him, which he had failed to do in my former interviews, might lead to the perdition of both of us. For this reason, and because I had fulfilled my part of what is ordered by his Excellency, I refrained from words and other proceedings.

All the letters mentioned which I have written to this commander, and which I shall present to his Excellency , contain nothing except to beg him to effect as soon as possible the establishment of the port of San Francisco. On this subject alone could he find a reason for being resentful to me, and on this only because he is opposed to it, as is evident to the father missionaries and other inhabitants of this region, who before now have informed me of it. He has no other reason than that he thinks the troops under his orders are not sufficient for such an enterprise, although it is possible to found the presidio with even a smaller number, because of the character of the Indians with whom they have to deal in this region.

After all the foregoing incidents, I continued by the road and direction mentioned until half past five in the afternoon, when I reached the site of San Bernarbé, where I halted for the night, having traveled sixteen leagues in eleven hours.

Tuesday, April 16 SP -- At a quarter to seven we again took up the march, ascending the valley of San Bernarbé, alias El Roble Caido, which runs in general to the south. Following this valley in the direction mentioned for two and one-half leagues over fairly good ground, we continued another league and a half in the same direction over some hills, from which we descended at half past ten to the mission of San Antonio, where we halted to remain here for the day, having traveled five leagues in three hours and three-quarters.

Wednesday, April 17 SP -- At two in the afternoon we set out from the mission of San Antonio, following its valley or river downstream, which in the main runs to the south-southeast and east. In this direction we traveled about five leagues in four hours, halting for the night on the banks of the river mentioned at six in the afternoon.

Thursday, April 18 SP -- A little after six we set forth along the same river, which we followed in general to the east-southeast. Having traveled about five leagues we left the river and crossed some hills, which lasted about another league, until we crossed the Nacimiento River. We then came to other hills like the last, over which we traveled to the south-southeast and southeast for two leagues, when we descended to the river of Monte Rey. Along this stream we traveled to the east-southeast for four leagues; this done, we continued in the same direction for two more leagues, ascending the valley of Santa Margarita, in which we halted for the night, having traveled fourteen leagues in eleven hours.

Friday, April 19 SP -- At a quarter past six we continued our route up the valley of Santa Margarita to the east-southeast for two and one-half leagues, coming at the end of this distance to its village. Then we ascended to the southeast a range of not very high hills, over which we traveled two and one-half more leagues, and, continuing to the south for another league, at half past ten we came to the mission of San Luís, where we halted for a stop, having traveled six leagues in five and one-half hours.

In the afternoon today I was overtaken at this mission by one of the friars who live at the mission of Carmelo, who brought a letter from his father president, in order that I might present it to his Excellency. The father president also requests me through his messenger to do him the favor of awaiting him, so that I may ride with him from here to the mission of San Gabriel, planning, if the commander of these establishments arranges for it, to travel in his company, for he had said that he also was coming to overtake me. The reason why the father superior of these missions is consenting to make this journey is to see if he can harmonize and compose the troubles that have arisen between the commander and the father missionary of San Diego, on account of the taking by the commander of a refugee from the place where they celebrate Mass, and to intercede for the rebellious Indians of that mission, part of whom offer to give themselves up peacefully, but in reply, they say, the commander has threatened to receive them with grapeshot.

I also received at the hand of the father emissary a letter from the commander in which he, like The father president, requests me to wait to confer with him regarding matters of the service, excusing himself for his manner of parting with me by saying that he was ill, besides other things which his letter contains and which likewise I shall present to his Excellency. Another letter was brought by the same friar from Lieutenant Moraga, in which he reports to me the arrival of the commander at Monte Rey. I will submit this letter with the others, for in it he expresses the opinion that his commander is demented.

Saturday, April 20 SP -- I remained at the mission, waiting as I have been requested to do.

Sunday, April 21 SP -- I remained here for the reason expressed above. At four in the afternoon four soldiers arrived, and their corporal gave me news of his commander, saying that he was awaiting me a little more than a league away, having camped there for the night. It rained today, and I served as godfather for five adults.

Immediately I sent a corporal and two of my soldiers to the commander with a reply to his letter, saying in substance that, notwithstanding his actions, I was willing to confer with him and await him for the purpose he mentions, providing that the conference shall be in writing and shall relate to the service, and that I will even await him here if he will notify me.

Monday, April 22 SP -- At half past twelve I received the reply to my letter mentioned yesterday, by the same messengers by whom I sent mine. In it the commander says in substance that he thinks Mission San Gabriel a more appropriate place in which to speak of the matters which he indicates. It may be that he will change from there to another place, for his whole purpose is to get as far away as possible from the establishment of San Francisco, to which he is opposed.

Tuesday, April 23 SP -- At seven I left the mission of San Luís and we set forth on the camino real for a league to the southeast. Then we traveled a league to the southwest, and another to the south, going through the village of El Buchón, passing before we reached it some springs of asphalt or chapopotte, as they call it in the Kingdom. From the village we descended to the beach, along which we traveled about two leagues to the south; these concluded, we left the beach and ascended some fair-sized sand dunes, which we crossed by going east. Then we turned south and south-southeast, across a plain which, together with the sand dunes, extended for about five leagues, until we reached the village of Laguna Larga. From here we went forward for lack of firewood , ascending some hills to the south and south-southwest for three leagues, and arriving at half past six in the afternoon at Laguna Graciosa , where we halted for the night, having traveled ten and one-half hours and covered thirteen leagues.

Mention should be made of a report which a week ago they gave to Father Juan Figuer, one of the ministers of the mission San Luís, who is versed in the language of this region. Once when he went to the ocean beach they showed him some rocks some distance out to sea, telling him that twenty-three winters or years ago twelve persons like us in whiteness, clothing, weapons, and other things they see, were shipwrecked and perished on those rooks. Before this misfortune they had disembarked from their launch, landed, and made the natives presents of glass beads, large knives, and pocket knives, these being the ones which our expedition found the first time they traveled through these regions. The father asked them if they saw another and larger vessel out at sea. They said "No," but there is no doubt that the vessel which they told of was wrecked, for besides the things given to them by the persons who were managing the vessel, they took advantage of its fragments, which they collected in the boats which they use, or of what the tide washed up on shore. Who these people might be I leave to be discussed by somebody who may be better informed than I.

Wednesday, April 24 SP -- At a quarter to seven we resumed our march, going generally south-southwest. Having traveled three leagues we came to the Santa Rosa River, and because it was low tide it did not impede our passage. We traveled about another league in the same direction, and then descended gradually for about two more leagues to the east, when we came to the westernmost village of the Channel of Santa Barbara. We continued in that direction along the coast, passing through another village, until we made five more leagues or twelve in all, and arrived, after having traveled twelve hours, at the vicinity of the village of El Cojo, where we halted at five in the afternoon to camp for the night.

Thursday, April 25 SP -- At a quarter to seven we continued our journey along the Channel, which all the way runs from west to east, making it unnecessary to indicate the directions again. We passed eight of its villages, and near that of Mexcaltitán we halted for the night at a quarter past five, having traveled fourteen leagues in ten and one-half hours.

Friday, April 26 SP -- At a quarter to seven we resumed our march along the same Channel in the same direction. We passed the three large villages of Mexcaltitán and the village of La Laguna, after which followed the four near the river of San Buenaventura and the last one, called La Carpintería, where we ended our march for the day at a quarter past five in the afternoon, having traveled ten hours and made twelve leagues. The fine circumstances of the heathen who inhabit this Channel for a distance of thirty leagues, more or less, in which there are seventeen villages of considerable size, midway between our establishments and between the two missions, make it seem too bad that they have not received the same benefit as other heathen, for the reason indicated and also in order that there might not be so long a stretch of unoccupied country.

May heaven be pleased to afford these unhappy people their day of light, for in themselves they have advantages enabling them to subsist in their towns better than others, aided by their supply of fish, which is continuous and abundant. I consider them as trustworthy as others, for their advantageous condition of living in compact settlements has not given them the audacity to attempt any serious injury to our people, and this proves their docility and their peaceful nature.

Saturday, April 27 SP -- At seven we resumed our march, and soon reached the end of the Channel, from which we continued to the east for two leagues, until we forded the Santa Clara River. From here we continued to the east-southeast for four more leagues, and then climbed the steep slope of a little range, along which we traveled to the east three more leagues. Then, turning northeast for another league, we arrived at half past five in the afternoon at Agua Escondida, having traveled only ten leagues in almost eleven hours because four of them had been over bad country.

Sunday, April 28 SP -- At seven we continued our journey along the little range mentioned, going east-northeast for more than a league, when we descended and finished the range. Then crossing the plain to the east, which lasted for about four leagues, we went three more over broken country in the same direction, making a total of more than eight leagues, arriving after ten hours of travel at five in the afternoon at Porciúncula River, where we camped for the night. As soon as we halted I sent three soldiers to the nearby mission of San Gabriel, in order that the commander of these establishments might be notified of my arrival there in the near future.

Monday, April 29 SP -- At half past six we resumed our march, going east-northeast for a league, after which we went another to the northeast and reached the mission of San Gabriel at eight, having made this distance in an hour and three-quarters. Here I halted for the purpose which I mentioned on the 22d instant. As soon as I arrived Commander Rivera sent me three dispatches, to which I replied, giving him time in which to write to his Excellency today, tomorrow and the following day. -- From the San Francisco River to this mission of San Gabriel, 154 leagues, estimating the distance from here to Monte Rey at 120 leagues.

Tuesday, April 30 SP -- At seven in the morning I sent with a dispatch to the commander, for his intelligence and guidance in what he ought to report to his Excellency, the plan or map of the port of San Francisco, and of all the journey which I made in its exploration.