Diary of Juan Bautista de Anza

Colonizing Expedition, 1775-1776

Friday, March 1 SP -- With fog and cold wind, at a quarter to eight in the morning we moved our train and set forth on the march to the northeast, with some turns to the north, in which direction we traveled about three leagues until we came to the village of the Laguna Larga. From here we continued in the last-named direction for two more leagues, at the end of which we turned toward the northwest or west-northwest, and likewise to the west, for about two and a half leagues, when we came to the shore of the sea. Turning again to the north, we traveled about a league and a half more, at the end of which we arrived at a quarter past five at the village of El Buchón, having traveled nine leagues in nine and a half hours. Here we halted for the night. -- From Tubac to the Ranchería del Buchón, 268 1/2 leagues.

Saturday, March 2 SP-- We raised our camp and set forth on the march. After going northeast for a league we turned to the north for another league, and then gradually descended toward the northwest for still another league, when we arrived at the mission of San Luís just as it was striking half past eleven , having traveled three and a half hours.

Although it is more than a month since it has rained in this region, today many mires were encountered, one being so dangerous that it was necessary to carry over all the packloads on the shoulders of the men, most of the people going on foot. Some of them, who wished to avoid wetting their feet, and hoping that the mounts would bring them out safely, paid well for it by getting much wetter. This greater disaster fell especially on our colonists and those who had most primped up to enter the pueblo.

The welcome which they gave us corresponded to their pleasure, and was such as may be imagined with people who spend all the days of their years without seeing any other faces than the twelve or thirteen to which most of these establishments are reduced, including the missionaries and the guard. And, aside from their long and painful exile from the world , as they say, we found them agitated by the event that happened at San Diego , thinking that after the first uprising another and worse one might have taken place, as the rebels threatened; and what is more, by the understanding that I had appeared with my expedition on the Colorado River, as the same rebels reported, just at the time of their rebellion, as was very easy for our people, induced by their own fear, to believe. But having seen me, all melancholy and sadness disappeared, and they have turned to giving thanks to divine providence and to the present efficient government , that in such a timely manner this aid in the way of troops should have come to them. -- From Tubac to the mission of San Luís, 271 1/2 leagues.

Sunday, March 3 SP -- I devoted the present day to rest for the entire expedition.

Monday, March 4 SP -- At a quarter past nine we set forth from this mission, going northeast for about a league and a half, in the course of which we climbed up a spur of the Sierra de Santa Lucía. Then, having traveled an equal distance or a little more to the north, we passed the site and river of Santa Margarita. This we followed downstream toward the northwest and west-northwest, in which direction it runs, until we came to the site of La Assumpción, where we halted, having made in the whole march about seven leagues in seven and a quarter hours. -- From Tubac to the ford of La Asumpción, 278 1/2 leagues.

Tuesday, March 5 SP -- A little before half past eight we set forth on the march, immediately crossing the river of Monte Rey, which was done successfully although the river was somewhat deep. From here we continued north with some turns to the north[west] for three leagues, at the end of which we left the river at our right and climbed some small hills to the northwest. Continuing over these to the west-northwest, in which direction they run, we descended in four more leagues to the Nacimiento River. From here we traveled for another league to the west, until we came to the first ford of the San Antonio River, where at half past four o'clock in the afternoon we halted to pass the night, having traveled eight leagues in the same number of hours. -- From Tubac to the ford of the San Antonio River, 286 1/2 leagues.

Wednesday, March 6 SP -- At eight o'clock we moved our train and immediately crossed the river named, and then ascended it to the west-southwest for about half a league. After this we continued along the same bottom lands, which little by little turn northwest, and traveled almost to the place where it rises and to the mission of San Antonio , where we arrived at four o'clock in the afternoon, having covered eight leagues in as many hours. The welcome which they gave us here was as warm as at the foregoing missions. This one presented our troop with two very fat hogs and a supply of suet from them, a present which, on account of the condition of the country and the needs of our soldiers, has been appreciated accordingly. -- From Tubac to the mission of San Antonio, 294 1/2 leagues.

Thursday, March 7 SP -- This day I devoted to rest for all the expedition. At one o'clock in the afternoon Lieutenant Moraga arrived at this mission with a report that on the 16th of last month, about four leagues before he reached the Colorado River and the Laguna de Santa Olaya, he succeeded in overtaking the soldier and the muleteers who had deserted from the mission of San Gabriel. As soon as he overtook them they surrendered without resistance except that two of them ran a short distance. But when he ordered them to surrender they did so, and he disarmed and bound them immediately, returning from that very place by the same road over which he had gone.

In various depositions which this officer has taken from the deserters for the purpose of learning whether the soldiers or any of the other members of the expedition wished to accompany them, and what may have been their motives for committing the treason of which they are guilty, they reveal nothing except what caused it. This was that a muleteer, having stolen two arrobas of chocolate, the sealed box of which was in his charge, as well as some aguardiente taken from a sealed barrel, he became frightened lest as soon as I should notice this shortage and others of similar import I should punish him as he merited, because these things were property of the expedition and entrusted to his care. Not having any way of exculpating himself from everything, he now invited the five persons mentioned to flee with him, the plan being to go out to the province of Sonora to hide themselves there in order not to be discovered.

The day agreed upon arrived -- the same day on which the soldier mentioned was to guard the saddle animals of the mission and of its escort. After he had put them at night in a place convenient for the rest, they went to the instigator to ask for the things which they took on the day of the desertion, as has been said. He complied, saying, "There you have them," adding that he was not going with them now because he feared the risk of the road, and the officers of our settlements if he should go without a passport from me, but that if they wished to go he would keep their secret. Thereupon, always fearful of being discovered, the five mentioned finally decided to go, as they did.

As soon as this officer returned to the mission of San Gabriel he put the men in prison, and learning that the muleteer , instigator of so much evil, was on his way to San Diego, he ordered the sergeant, commander of the former mission, that as soon as be returned be should arrest him and keep all of them secured.

All the foregoing, as well as that he lost seven riding animals in pursuit of these men, this officer reported to Commander Rivera, as it had been arranged that he should do. To me likewise he has reported that the heathen of the Marsh of San Sebastían, and others as far as the Pass of San Carlos , wished to make war upon him, and secretly wounded three of the riding animals, although they did not capture them, in order that the Spaniards might not be able to use them, but as soon as they made the attempt he set upon them, which was enough to cause them to flee. These same barbarians have done this on three former occasions, and it has been tolerated in them up to now in order to justify our cause. This officer assures me likewise that both he and the soldiers who accompanied him noted among these heathen signs which indicate that they took part in the sacking and destruction of the mission of San Diego, circumstances sufficient to warrant regarding them as vicious as they are, and as bad as they have manifested themselves by other happenings among them ever since our first visit.

Friday, March 8 SP -- Lieutenant Moraga and the three soldiers whom I left him in order that he might follow me, having joined us, I set forth from this mission of San Antonio at a quarter to nine o'clock. Going northeast and north for three leagues, as far as El Roble Caido, from here we continued northwest for about four more leagues, until at a quarter past three we came to Los Ossitos on the river of Monte Rey, where the march was finished, having traveled seven leagues in seven hours. At twelve o'clock tonight it rained. -- From Tubac to Los Ossitos, 301 1/2 leagues.

Saturday, March 9 SP -- A little before eight o'clock we raised our camp and set forth to the west-northwest over a spacious and beautiful plain, following the bottom lands of the river. Traveling in this direction eight leagues in eight hours, we came to the place of Los Correos, where we ended our journey at three in the afternoon, because there were signs of rain. -- From Tubac to Los Correos, 309 1/2 leagues.

Sunday, March 10 SP -- A little before four it began to rain lightly and continued until seven. Since it looked as if it would clear up entirely, I gave orders to raise our train, and we set forth on the march at half past eight, continuing west-northwest along the river until we had traveled three leagues. We now changed our direction and left the river, going west and also west-southwest. Following this direction we arrived after four o'clock at the presidio of Monte Rey, having traveled seven leagues in a little more than eight hours. When we arrived it was raining heavily, having begun at eleven o'clock. -- From Tubac to the presidio and port of Monte Rey, 316 1/2 leagues.

From the time of leaving my presidio until my arrival here sixty-two days' marches have been made, this being a few less than I estimated even when I was in Mexico. In all these days of travel we have had no losses among the people whom I have conducted except the woman mentioned as having died of childbirth on the first night after we set forth from Tubac. Other adversities experienced and related herein are those common to roads less extended and more open, and even provided with everything necessary to guard against mishaps. The rain storm continued until nightfall.

Sunday, March 11 SP -- The reverend father president of the missions of these new establishments came with three other friars from the mission of Carmelo, which is a league distant, to welcome me and to invite me to go to the mission. With their aid we had the advantage of Mass and a sermon, given by our father chaplain, Fray Pedro Font, as an act of thanksgiving for the successful arrival of the expedition at this presidio. With great energy he exhorted our people to manifest their Catholicism by their exemplary lives, as a mirror which the piety of his Majesty is sending to these regions to convert its heathen , this being the principal purpose for which they have been brought.

In the afternoon of this day I went to the mission of Carmelo, where I was surprised at the large number of new Christians settled there, for they exceed three hundred souls, whereas two years ago when I was at the mission I did not see a third as many. I have noted the same thing in all the missions which I have passed through, notwithstanding that not all of the fruit that has been gathered exists in them now, because the missions have not produced the necessary provisions to maintain them, for up to now, although the country is very well adapted to all kinds of crops, there has not been an opportunity to plant them. Nevertheless, this year the fields are larger; and in proportion as crops abound the spiritual conquest will increase, for the Indians are numerous, even if most of them receive conversion and faith by way of the mouth, as they say with good reason, because they like our grains and gifts of other things which they did not have and had never heard of.

Other conditions and good qualities of all this New California I shall omit to state, because this has been done in numerous accounts that are better than mine. So I conclude by saying that with the exception of minerals, from Mexico to here, counting both the coasts and the interior districts and their respective climates, I have seen no other region so advantageous as this for the raising of all kinds of stock, and the production of the principal grains suitable for food, which is remarkable, for it produces these as well as most kinds of vegetables. And the climate afforded these latter at the time of transplanting them is such that with only this effort they grow so tender and large that I have not seen their equal even among those best cultivated.

Notable also in this mission of Carmelo is the great abundance of salmon which enter the river to spawn. They are so large that I saw one six palms long, and with good nets and not a great deal of labor it would be possible to establish a good commerce in them. The shoals of huge sardines are even larger and very frequent, but to the catching of these and other fish they have given little attention, and less care in proportion to their abundance, although if they had only set to running the launch which is in Monte Rey, and asked for nets from San Blas, they might have seen themselves always abundantly supplied with fish and the vessels which bring provisions loaded with them.

Tuesday, March 12 SP -- I remained at this mission, and from here began to make preparations to go within two days to explore the port and river of San Francisco.

Wednesday, March 13 SP -- At twelve o'clock today I was suddenly attacked by some very severe and sharp pains in the groin, the hip, the knee, and the left thigh, which have been so violent that I could not breathe and I have thought I should be suffocated and die. To these ills some fever was added, and I got no relief from the medicines possessed by the presidio doctor. Therefore, after six hours of torment I resorted to a root from my province which, made into a salve, reduced the pains by half, but I could not sleep at all during the night, and could lie in only one position.

From Thursday to Tuesday, March 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19 SP -- No relief, unable to rise, worn-out with fever and continually restless.

On Sunday, March 17 SP -- I sent eight soldiers of the presidio of Monte Rey to Commander Don Fernando Rivera, as he requested me to do. And because the troops who come assigned to the port of San Francisco regret not going immediately to their destination, since they are numerous enough, I am writing him to this effect, begging him, on my part, that he permit them so to do, with a view to my return and to the exploration which I am going to make of the port mentioned. And I am offering even to conduct these troops thither myself if he is not able to come and do it and cannot entrust it to the officer who has come for this purpose.

Wednesday and Thursday, March 20 and 21 SP -- Aided by some medicines and assisted by other persons I was able to take a step.

Friday, March 22 SP -- Having had some relief, and being able to take a few steps, I decided, although against the advice of the surgeon, to mount a horse to continue my journey for the exploration of the port and river of San Francisco, hoping with the exercise of the road to recover my health. For this purpose they mounted me on horseback, and not feeling any worse I made the journey to Monte Rey, where I passed the rest of the day and the night.

Saturday, March 23 SP -- With Lieutenant Don Joseph Joachín Moraga, the Rev. Father Fr. Pedro Font, and a corporal of this presidio of Monte Rey, two other soldiers of this presidio and eight of my company, and equipped with provisions for twenty days, I set forth from the presidio at half past nine, taking the same road, as a better route to the port of San Francisco. Going to the east for about half a league, and continuing to the east-northeast for four more leagues, at the end of this distance we forded the River of Monte Rey. From here we continued to the northeast and north-northeast over a good plain with beautiful pastures for about three leagues and arrived at half past three at La Assumpción, at the beginning of a canyon with some trees, having traveled seven leagues in seven hours. -- From Tubac to La Asunción, 323 1/2 leagues.

Sunday, March 24 SP -- At half past seven we set forth northeast, ascending the canyon mentioned, and some ridges which ended in a steep descent by which we came to and passed the arroyo of San Benito, which has only water enough for travelers. To here we had come two leagues. We now turned to the north-northwest with considerable turns to the northwest, through a spacious plain, until we had gone about six more leagues, arriving at half past three at the site of San Bernardino and also that of Las Llagas, having traveled eight leagues in eight hours. Here we camped for the night.

About two leagues before reaching this place, near a water course which we passed, we saw a village of seventeen huts, three of whose heathen inhabitants came to make us a present of an equal number of fish, for which we gave them compensation. A league and a half farther on there came to us twenty-two natives, of more than seventy persons of both sexes who were out hunting. These unfortunates had nothing more to offer us than the few arrows of the kind which they use, and though we did not accept them we gave them our usual presents. We have noted here that in the place where the last Mass was said when our people traveled through here, the trees where they nailed and set up the altar are now full of arrows, decorated with colored feathers and hung with some little bags of food, now decayed, which indicates the acknowledgment which these heathen render. We do not know to whom it is offered, but with others of whom I have some knowledge it is usually to the immortality of their own people, although confused and very different from real immortality. This site might serve in the future as a place for a settlement, for it does not lack a fair amount of land and water for crops, and timber and firewood are to be had in abundance close by. -- From Tubac to San Bernardino, 331 1/2 leagues.

Monday, March 25 SP -- A little before eight o'clock we set forth along the edge of some low hills on the left, which run to the northwest for a little more than three leagues. Having passed these we entered a spacious plain with many oaks and live oaks. After traveling a short distance in the plain we turned to the west-northwest, and then began to meet many heathen, who went notifying those ahead, greedy for the glass beads which I gave them. With such a company as this we continued for about a league and a half, after which they left us. Continuing our route in the same direction for about three leagues and a half, we turned to the west, going close to some small hills at our left, and arrived at the arroyo of San Joseph Cupertino, which is useful only for travelers. Here we halted for the night, having come eight leagues in seven and a half hours. From this place we have seen at our right the estuary which runs from the port of San Francisco. In order to get around it to see the great river of the same name we shall have to return to this place or go even farther back. -- From Tubac to San Joseph Cupertino, 339 1/2 leagues.

Tuesday, March 26 SP -- At half past seven we set forth to the northwest, crossing three arroyo s with a small amount of water. The fourth, which we came to after having traveled a little less than four leagues, was the arroyo of San Francisco. It was proposed and marked for a mission, as is shown by a cross, but subsequently it has been found that it is not suitable for the purpose because it lacks water in the dry season. This is too bad, for it certainly has all the other advantages that might be desired, such as an abundance of heathen, good land for crops, plentiful and choice timber near by, and other things which make it desirable. At this arroyo we found a village of about twenty huts whose inhabitants were given presents of glass beads.

Continuing our route from here, and going in general to the west-northwest, although the turns which we made in the first direction were small and almost negligible, we passed by two other villages to whom we made the same gifts. Here ends the abundance of oaks, live oaks and other trees which we have had on all sides on the way from San Bernardino. Leaving these villages and continuing on our way, we came upon two others, the second one being on the arroyo of San Matheo. From here we passed on to another, distant about half a league, and here at half past three we halted for the night, having traveled for eight hours and covered about eight leagues. All these arroyos mentioned today, and a larger number which have been passed dry shod, we have found grown with many tall and thick laurels of extraordinary and most fragrant scent. -- From Tubac to the arroyo of San Matheo, 347 1/2 leagues.

Wednesday, March 27 SP -- A little before seven we set forth on the march, going in the main to the northwest, whereby we arrived at half past ten at the mouth of the port of San Francisco. Here we halted on the banks of a lake which until today has been regarded as a lagoon, because its outlet into the sea had not been seen, but it has a stream sufficient for a mill. Here we concluded a march of about four leagues made in three and a half hours. Although, as I have said, we halted at the lake mentioned, as soon as our baggage was unloaded I went to inspect the neighborhood of the mouth, going west and south in order to see if there are any conveniences for the establishment of the fort. In this pursuit I employed the time from the hour mentioned until five, when I returned. The advantages of the site which I have noted are running water of good quality and of the quantity already expressed, to which are added other streams nearby in the same directions, much firewood and good pasturage, sufficient and even in superabundance for pasturing cattle. But along with these good qualities one must mention the lack of timber, for in the district examined there is none even for barracks, but I shall continue to look for some tomorrow in the remaining directions. -- From Tubac to the port of San Francisco, 351 1/2 leagues.

Thursday, March 28 SP -- I went to the narrowest opening made by the mouth of the port, where nobody had been before. There I set up a cross, and at its foot I buried under the ground a notice of what I have seen, in order that it may serve as a guide to any vessels that may enter, as well as a report of what I am going on to explore in order to establish the fort belonging to this harbor.

This done, I continued exploring the country on the shore of the harbor to the east and east-southeast. Very soon after leaving the site of our eamp I began to find running water, an infinite supply of firewood, timber for barracks, mostly of oak, both green and dry and of good thickness, but bent toward the ground because of the constant northwest winds on this coast. Likewise, after continuing to the southeast a league and a half along the coast of the estuary, I found a good site for planting crops with irrigation by taking the water from a good spring or fountain, even though it should diminish to half the volume which is running now above the site. And since a little more than half a league to the east of the camp there is a very large lake which cannot be anything less than permanent at all seasons, and which is running at present, either because its fountain is perpetual or because it has a spring now, whichever the case may be, with a week's labor and with a stockade and an earthen embankment it could be made extremely abundant. It does not have any land which could be irrigated, because the tide of the sea overflows the lowlands there, but on the banks of the lake good gardens can be planted, for it is already known that the climate is good, and that the crops grow with less moisture because of the heavy fogs which fall almost every night, and of the cloudy days, which are many in the course of a year, and even the majority, it may be said.

In the district which I have examined today and from which I returned at five o'clock in the afternoon, I have also encountered numerous and docile heathen, who have accompanied me with great pleasure but without going a step outside of their respective Territories, because of the enmity which is common among them.

Friday, March 29 SP -- At a quarter past seven I packed up our equipage and sent it back by the same route over which we had come with orders to await me at the arroyo of San Matheo. Then, with a party of five soldiers and my father chaplain, I continued to explore the district which I had not covered to the southeast, and the region which overlooks the estuary that runs to the south and inland from the port. I again went to the lake with the spring which I mentioned yesterday, and likewise to the spring which I called Los Dolores. About half a league from here, to the southeast, there is a wide and long valley with plentiful moisture where more than a hundred and twenty fanegas of wheat can be sown. There is also a little spring of good drinking water which appears not to dry up, because it has a good-sized village which also enjoys a plentiful supply of firewood. From here forward and until I again struck the road which I followed in coming there is nothing noteworthy. But the exploration that has been made on this occasion, in the region where it was prognosticated that there would be the same sterility as at the west of our port mentioned, shows that this region, with the exception of what relates to timber for large beams, is not only fertile but extremely so.

Therefore, this presidio and fort will have an abundance and variety of water, firewood, and building stone. It will not lack a place in which to plant good fields, although somewhat distant, nor pastures for cattle without equal in quality and abundance. And besides enjoying these fine advantages, of which those who have formerly come as far as the mouth of the port have not even had hopes, it will enjoy even more if established at the place already mentioned, where it is narrowest, to mark which I am leaving erected a cross, as I indicated on the 28th. From this place or point to the opposite point we estimate the distance to be a quarter of a league, for it must be this wide, more or less, as is shown by the maps which must have been presented by the officers of the marine who have entered it to explore, and as also will be seen from our own map.

A short time after I reached the road by which we came I left it at my left, with the intention of exploring the valley of San Andrés and the lake of Merced, and other places intermediate between the coast and the estuary, notwithstanding that others have done this at more favorable times and have reported their explorations to his Excellency. For this reason I omit relating them in detail, saying only that this valley has all the favorable circumstances required for the establishment of a mission, which would have the advantage of plentiful crops, both seasonal and with irrigation, as well as plenty of heathen , and would serve as a way-station between Monte Rey and the port of San Francisco.

From this valley, which is distant about four and a half leagues from the port, there can be taken to it on mules, since in these establishments there are as yet no oxen, all the timber, both of pine and redwood as they call it here, as well as live oak, cottonwood, and willow, which may be needed for building, for it abounds in all of these, and the country being level as far as the port would aid in this. Therefore it appears to me that there is nothing to prevent occupying this most famous port at the place where it ought to be occupied. Moreover, any other place where the establishment of the garrison which ought to protect it might be effected, is distant for the purpose and very unhandy.

Night having fallen, at a quarter past six I went down to the arroyo of San Andrés and to another, that of San Matheo, where it descends to empty into the estuary. There I found in our camp nearly all the men of the village, very friendly, content, and joyful, putting themselves out to serve us in every way, a circumstance which I have noted in all the natives seen from the 26th up to now, but one which I had not experienced theretofore since leaving the people of the Colorado River. These whom I am speaking of now are poorer and more miserable than those others, but because they have been described by others who have dealt with them before me, I refrain from speaking of their characteristics. This afternoon it rained for about an hour and a half, although not very heavily. The same afternoon we succeeded in killing with bullets a monstrous bear which came out upon our road, whose very fat flesh was taken advantage of by those who like it. -- From Tubac, returning from the port of San Francisco to the arroyo of San Matheo, 355 1/2 leagues.

Saturday, March 30 SP -- At half past two in the morning a fairly heavy rain fell and lasted until three, and at a quarter past seven we raised our camp with the purpose of continuing our route to the San Francisco River. With this in view we retraced for some distance the trail by which we had come, continuing to the east-southeast for about three and a half leagues, until we crossed the arroyo of San Francisco. Here we left the road and directed our march to encircle the southern estuary, over a route which hitherto had not been followed in going around it, in order to see if we might save the great detour which they have formerly made. For this purpose we turned east-southeast, and having traveled about a league after leaving the arroyo of San Francisco, we discovered three springs or creeks of abundant water which run to empty into the estuary. Half a league further on we came to another, and near it a settlement of about a hundred heathen, to whom I gave presents. Then, going about another league and a half we came to a large arroyo or fair-sized river, where with difficulty we found a ford. Having crossed it, at four o'clock we halted for the night on its banks, partly because it had been raining and partly because it was threatening to rain harder, having traveled to here about six leagues and a half in about eight hours.

To this arroyo or river we gave the name of Guadalupe. It has abundant and good timber of cottonwood, ash, willow, and other kinds. In all directions there is a great abundance of firewood, and likewise agricultural lands for raising crops by natural humidity, or by irrigation if the river is permanent, as we conjecture, in which case it would make possible a large settlement. The estuary does not reach to the region through which we have passed, as was supposed, and for this reason we have saved about a day and a half's travel which has been lost by all those who formerly have tried to go to the San Francisco River. In the place where we are camped there are three good-sized villages, each about as large as the last one mentioned, composed of people like the foregoing, and by whom, according to the paths and trails, the region upstream appears to be populated.

Today we measured a red pine tree of the kind which abound in the sierra nearby to the west, and although this tree was away from the center of the mountains, for it stands on the arroyo of San Francisco, it was found to be fifty-six and a half vara s high and five and a half varas in circumference. -- From Tubac to the Guadalupe River, 362 leagues.

Sunday, March 31 SP -- Today dawned fair, and at eight o'clock we set forth on the march. Having traveled about a league to the north-northwest we came to a narrow arm of the estuary which we supposed was the end, but as it prevented our passage because it was so miry we had to go back that far to the real terminus of the arm mentioned, at the mouth of an arroyo which the soldiers from Monte Rey think is the one which they call Arroyo del Coyote. This enabled us to see several villages of heathen near the place where we left the mouth of the arroyo mentioned. We continued our route to the north for about two leagues, when we came to the road which on other occasions they have taken to the river toward which we are going. The road runs close to a small range completely bare of trees, for none are seen except some which grow in the canyons. We followed the first one, which has plenty of trees and has water in abundance until it joins the estuary. From this arroyo we turned to the northwest. Continuing in this direction we crossed four arroyos with little water, and at a quarter to four in the afternoon we halted for the night at the last one, having traveled about seven leagues in a little less than seven hours.

Today in passing we have seen six villages, whose inhabitants, not accustomed to seeing us, fled like wild beasts. Notwithstanding this, about forty heathen have come close to us and I have given them presents. The last one whom we encountered discovered us about forty paces away, and although less than five steps from where he was there was a place where he might have hidden, such was his terror that he lay down in his tracks, or rather I think that he involuntarily fell down through fright. Since he and we were on the same trail, I reached the place where he was lying prone more dead than alive, without any particular movement of lips or limbs. I tried to relieve his fright and to get him to stand up, but for a long time I was unable to succeed, for he had courage enough only to take weakly some glass heads, most of which he let fall. Seeing this, I thought it best to leave the unfortunate fellow alone, and if I had not done so I think he would have died. We attribute this spasm to the fact that up to that moment he had never had even a remote notice of us or of any people other than those of his own kind. The Indians who have been seen from the first arroyo forward are not short haired like those from the mission of San Antonio to the port of San Francisco. These of which we are now speaking wear their hair tied up on the very top of their heads where only a piece of thread is to be seen. -- From Tubac to Arroyo de la Arina, 369 leagues.