Diary of Juan Bautista de Anza

Colonizing Expedition, 1775-1776

Friday, December 1 SP -- At sunrise I returned with our men and tools to the place selected by the fathers in which to remain, where I commenced to build a cabin in order that they might have shelter. At three in the afternoon a report was brought me from camp that two of the invalids, out of ten whom we customarily have had since we set out from Tubac, were in such danger that the sacrament of penance had been administered to them. Thereupon I returned to camp and had them given the few medicines which it was possible to find.

Saturday, December 2 SP -- In the morning the patients were so ill that it was thought that both of them would die before the day was over, and consequently it was not possible to march. For this reason I sent my subaltern to attend to the building of the cabin for the fathers. They returned at the end of the afternoon with a report that it was nearly finished.

Sunday, December 3 SP -- Although during the night the two patients were in the same danger as yesterday, I decided to move camp to a better site to see if it might afford them some relief. For this purpose we set forth on the march a little before eleven o'clock, following the Colorado River, and after traveling half an hour or a little less we halted at the place where Captain Palma lives and where he is doing what is necessary for the fathers who are remaining. Here we halted for the night. The rest of the day was devoted to finishing the cabin already mentioned, and to separating the provisions and other things which are being left for the maintenance of the two missionaries mentioned for more than four months. With them are remaining three interpreters and the same number of servants, and we are leaving saddle animals for the use of all of them, under the protection of the Yuma tribe and their Captain Palma, who is remaining in their company. For this reason he is not going with me as far as he went on the last occasion. -- 25. From Tubac to the habitation of the Yumas on the Colorado River, 103 1/2 leagues.

Monday, December 4 SP -- Having moved our train, at half past nine we set forth on the march down the Colorado River toward the west, from which direction we varied many times, as was required by the impenetrable thickets of various kinds of trees and brush, for the march is made with indescribable difficulty, especially when it is necessary to drive cattle , and all the marches which follow are the same. And so we traveled four and a half leagues in more than five hours, until we reached the villages of San Pablo, a place well peopled with heathen, where a halt was made for the night. It was not possible to bring the horned cattle to this spot because the thickness of the brush prevented our doing so, and for this reason they remained about a league back of the place where we all camped. Last night the cold was so severe that it has increased the number of our sick, who now number eleven, and as another consequence two of our saddle animals have died. -- 26. From Tubac to the Cerro de San Pablo on the same river, 108 leagues.

Tuesday, December 5 SP -- Before ten o'clock we continued our march, still following the river, by a road just like the former one, thickly settled with heathen, with changes in direction running through the whole quadrant from west to south, in order to avoid the brush and the branches of the river which prevent the road from being straight. Having covered three leagues in this way, at a quarter to one we arrived at the neighborhood of the Laguna de los Coxas, where it was necessary to halt for the night to await the cattle, for they could not reach this place until five in the afternoon. To one of our patients who in the night appeared about to die, the sacrament of penance was administered. At this lake ends the jurisdiction of Captain Palma and of the Yuma tribe, which is followed immediately by the tribe of the Coxas -- 27. From Tubac to the Laguna de los Cojas on the same river, 111 leagues.

Wednesday, December 6 SP -- Raising our camp, at half past nine we continued down the bottom lands of the Colorado River, with changes in direction all the way from west to south for the same reasons as yesterday. Having traveled four leagues in as many hours, we arrived at the Laguna de Santa Olaya, where a halt was made for the night, but the horned cattle were not able to reach the place during the whole day because of the hindrance of the thickets. A short time after we reached this lake several natives of the vicinity also arrived. Among them there were three fishermen with nets who in less than an hour caught for us more than a thousand fish from a third to a half a jeme long, among them being curbinas and skates. There is no doubt, therefore, that these fish come from the sea during the overflow of the Colorado River, which is the time when this and other lakes fill up, and consequently it is likewise certain that there is no fall in the river until it reaches the gulf of California, just as the Yumas assured me last time. -- 28. From Tubac to the Laguna de Santa Olaya at the same river, 115 leagues.

Thursday, December 7 SP -- At this place we are to leave the river, and have to make three marches without any pasturage and with very little water, for lack of which and especially of the latter it is necessary to make the march in divisions on different days, in order to get enough water for all. I have therefore decided to rest the animals here for two days and give time for our invalids to recuperate somewhat, so that they may be able to stand the three marches which are necessary. The cattle, likewise, will have to make two marches without water, for in their wild condition it is not possible to water them with vessels as is done with the horses.

Friday, December 8 SP -- We spent the day at this site, which belongs to the Cogat tribe. Since I set forth in my former diary the details regarding the superiority of the lands here for crops I will not repeat them now, but will simply add that I am confirmed in my opinion that the Cogats are more numerous than the Yumas, and that the same tribes follow after these which I mentioned in the same diary.

To this tribe, to whom presents of glass beads and tobaoco were given, as to the foregoing tribes, we have been indebted for their supplying us much more liberally than the others with their present crops, such as maize, beans, and calabashes, and more than two thousand watermelons of enormous size. Indeed, we threw watermelons away and left them because we had nothing in which to carry them. Likewise, they have continued to bring us skates and curbinas, besides the other fish which were mentioned on the first of the month

Saturday, December 9 SP -- In keeping with the plan outlined above, those of us who make up the first division set forth on the march at half past nine. Going west, and having traveled five leagues in as many hours, we arrived at El Carrisal, whose wells, called Pozos de la Alegría, we opened, and they appeared to have water enough to supply the necessities of all members of all the divisions, each of which comprises a third of the entire expedition, with the exception of the cattle. These, for the reason which has been given, are going directly from this Carrisal to San Sebastián, and since they have to travel two days without water, I left instructions to the men who are conducting them to carry water necessary for their own use. In the same way it is provided that the three divisions, both the troops and the pack train, shall carry maize, which was brought for the purpose, and grass in bundles, in order to give the saddle animals some food where there is none to be had. -- 29. From Tubac to the Pozos del Carrisal, or Pozos de la Alegría, 120 leagues.

Sunday, December 10 SP -- Having given water very sparingly to all the mounts, we set forth on the march today at half past twelve, going west with some slight turns to the west-northwest. In this way we traveled about five leagues in a little more than five hours, until we came to a deep arroyo which offered nothing except an abundance of firewood , but this was very much needed as a protection from the severe cold, and so a halt was made here for the night. At this place our mounts were given the forage and grain which were brought as a precaution against the lack of pasturage -- 30. From Tubac to the Arroyo Hondo, 125 leagues.

Monday, December 11 SP -- At three o'clock in the morning I gave orders that grain should be given to the animals again. Having saddled and loaded them, we set forth on the march at seven o'clock, traveling west with some turns to the west-northwest, and going around many sand dunes which crossed our trail. By this means, and with footing much more favorable than we had expected, we arrived at vespers at the Wells of Santa Rosa de las Lajas, having traveled ten leagues in a little more than ten hours. Although at daybreak I sent men ahead with the necessary tools to open these wells, I found them running very slowly, but having set myself personally at the task we were able to give water to many saddle animals before ten o'clock. All day and tonight the weather has been cruelly cold, and to this is added the fact that this site is lacking in firewood and it has not been possible to gather any through lack of light. -- 31. From Tubac to Santa Rosa de las Lajas, 135 leagues.

Tuesday, December 12 SP -- At two o'clock in the morning I set to work at the wells, and at this time we began by the light of the moon to water the rest of the saddle animals, and we also watered again those which had drunk the night before. As a result, before ten o'clock all were satisfied, and the wells were running so freely that from today forward, so long as they are kept clean, they are capable of furnishing, with some delay, all that is necessary for three hundred or more animals. And there would be a still greater abundance if the wells should be given secure curbing, for in this case they would be a vara deeper than at present. This accomplished, in spite of the strong, cold wind which has continued we set forth on the march at half past twelve, going north-northwest, with some turns to the north. In this direction and over good terrain we traveled about four leagues in as many hours, at the end of which we halted at the only site where there was firewood and pasturage, because fuel was extremely necessary as a protection from the severe cold, and to await the rain which was threatening from all directions. -- 32. From Tubac to the plain before arriving at San Sebastián, 109 [139] leagues.

Wednesday, December 13 SP -- Day broke with threatening signs of snow, and indeed at daylight a few flakes fell, and it was seen that they were more abundant in the sierra which we had near by on our left. Nevertheless we set forth on the march at half past eight, going north-northwest over better terrain than the day before. We traveled in this direction about five and a half leagues, finishing the day's march by going another league and a half to the north, in order to reach the Marsh of San Sebastián, which we succeeded in doing at half past three. The few heathen who live here came out to welcome us with great demonstrations of affection. At the time when we halted the strong cold wind, which had been very hard on our people, especially the women and children, quieted down somewhat. The sky also cleared a little more, and we were able to see that the sierras through which we had to travel were more deeply covered with snow than we had ever imagined would be the case. Taking advantage of this quiet weather, I had all the firewood gathered that was possible, though it was not much because the region is lacking in it, in order to withstand the cold wind which came up again with great force at five o'clock with preludes of rain and snow. These inclemencies continued until night. -- 33. From Tubac to the Ciénega de San Sebastián, 144 1/2 leagues.

Thursday, December 14 SP -- As soon as day began to dawn it commenced to snow with fierce and extremely cold wind, which continued the entire day, and for this reason it was not possible to march. And since it is probable on account of the snow that on the next journey, to San Gregorio, there will not be such a shortage of water as we have assumed, I have decided to wait in this place for the two divisions which are following me.

At twelve o'clock the cattle arrived. As I have said, they came by a different route from the rest of the expedition, and in bringing them we lost ten head which became tired out. These animals, notwithstanding that they had not been watered for four days, needed so little in this present season that even when they were taken to the verge of the water most of them preferred to eat rather than drink.

The second division did not put in its appearance during the whole day, although it ought to be here, and for this reason I conclude that it encountered the same storm as ourselves and was prevented by it from marching. At eleven o'clock at night it stopped snowing, but the mountains and plains continued to be so covered with snow that it looked like daylight, and there now followed a very severe freeze, as a consequence of which this was a night of extreme hardship.

Friday, December 15 SP -- At daybreak it was very windy, and the snow which had fallen the day and the night before was very hard from the freezing weather which had preceded, as a result of which six of our cattle and one mule died. At a quarter past twelve the second division began to arrive, in charge of the sergeant. The people were crippled by the storm, which overtook them midway between Santa Rosa and here. In spite of all their efforts to reach here yesterday they were unable to do so, and on the way several persons were frozen, one of them so badly that in order to save his life it was necessary to bundle him up for two hours between four fires. As a result of these inclemencies five saddle animals died in their division. But aside from these there were no disasters on their march, and, indeed, because the division was slower than the first and came by a made road, with wells open, it was more conveniently supplied with water than the former division.

Saturday, December 16 SP -- I remained in this place awaiting the third division. This morning four of our cattle died from injuries and cold because of the severe freezing weather. At eleven o'clock they informed me that when they were looking for some saddle animals which had disappeared from sight, they found that they were being driven off by four of the heathen who had come to see us. I therefore ordered the sergeant and four soldiers to go and follow them, with orders that if they should overtake the thieves in the open or in their villages they should three times require them to deliver the stolen animals, giving them to understand that if they did this again they would feel the force of our arms, but that they were not to punish them with weapons except in case the Indians by force of their own arms should attempt to retain the saddle animals or refuse to deliver them. At seven o'clock the sergeant returned with the report that he found the mounts in two different villages, distant about four leagues, where not a single man was to be seen, but he gave the women who were there to understand what his orders were, so that they might report them to their men.

Sunday, December 17 SP -- Since the third division did not appear yesterday, at seven o'clock in the morning I sent two soldiers to meet it with twenty saddle animals, in order that they may have new mounts to replace those which may be tired out or made useless because of the cold.

At half past three in the afternoon the third division arrived at this place in command of Alférez Don Joseph Moraga. His forces were in worse condition than the two earlier divisions because the storm of snow and cold had caught them in a more exposed position, and as a result several persons were frozen to the point of being in danger of death. From the same cause six saddle animals were left by the wayside and four others died. In attending to his division, providing fire for them, and in other services for their relief, this officer so exposed himself that he contracted very severe pains in his ears, and although these have been cured, the weather is so bad that he has been left totally deaf in both ears. Today two more of our cattle have died as a result of injury and cold.

In the midst of these misfortunes which have been caused us by the snowstorm, with the loss of the animals which have died, it almost seems to have been designed for the benefit of the health of our people, for whereas nine days ago we counted more than fifteen invalids, three of them dangerously ill, today there are less than five of the first class and none of the second. Their sudden recovery, which we have not hitherto experienced since we began the march, is attributed partly to the many watermelons which were eaten at the lake of Santa Olaya .

The details concerning this site and the people who inhabit it I set forth in my former diary, and since I have nothing to add to what I have already said there, I will only note that the misery inseparable from all Indians abounds in these more than we have witnessed anywhere before reaching this place, but we shall be able to equal it with those from hereforward, of whose shortcomings likewise I gave an account in my diary cited. I also noted therein what happened to us then from the pasturage, which made our saddle animals useless because it purged them so. During the days that we have been here this time this trouble has not been experienced, and we attribute this to the fact that with the present rain and snow the saltiness of its leaves has decreased. This notice may be helpful as a means of removing fear of trouble at such a season as this.

Monday, December 18 SP -- Notwithstanding the care which we have tried to observe with the cattle, it has not been possible to keep down the mortality both from the cold and from injuries. This morning two of them were found dead and five others it is thought will not be able to go forward from this place. We have made such use of them as has been possible, making of them jerked beef and salting it well, but even so it is unpalatable because of its scent, color, and taste.

At half past one in the afternoon we raised our camp in order to set out and shorten the next journey. Going west, with some turns to the west-northwest, over level country, we traveled about three and a half leagues in as many hours, until we came to the first pasturage and firewood that was found in a wide valley, where a halt was made for the night. All the sierra s which we have seen today in all directions have appeared covered with snow except those along the line of our route. Today's march has been made with some comfort, because the weather has been quiet and the sun shining, this last being a blessing which we have not enjoyed for the last six days. After nightfall the cattle arrived at our camp, having been made to march since ten o'clock in the morning, in order that they might make some stops, but this precaution has not been sufficient to prevent the loss of five head from weariness and injuries. -- 34. From Tubac to Los Puertecitos, 148 leagues.

Tuesday, December 19 SP -- At nine o'clock in the morning we raised our train and began the march toward the west, with repeated turns to the west-northwest, over sandy country with bad footing. In this direction we traveled four leagues in a little more than four hours, and at the end of this time we came to the site of San Gregorio. This watering place appeared at first to have enough water for our saddle animals, but within two hours after we had halted we were left without any, and nearly half of the animals were still to be watered, notwithstanding that for greater economy we had led the first ones by the halters to drink. Being informed of this lack I went personally to have some wells opened, which was done in various places, digging them to the depth of more than an estado. In all of them water was found, but it flowed so slowly that we concluded that we should not be able to achieve our purpose during the whole night, which in fact proved to be the case.

After nightfall the cattle arrived, and although they had taken all day to accomplish the journey, this was not sufficient to prevent the loss of four head. The same thing happened with three mounts, for these animals, like the rest, have become so scrawny and lean that they have no resemblance to those which started on the journey, especially those not accustomed to the cold, which is true of many of them. But of the few which come from the presidio s, notwithstanding that they are the ones which have done double work, not one has been lost. On leaving this place we begin the crossing of the range which runs from the Peninsula of California, which gives the appearance of having fair openings through which to go out to the port and mission of San Diego, not only from here but even from below Santa Rosa de las Lajas. -- 35. From Tubac to San Gregorio, 152 leagues.

Wednesday, December 20 SP -- This morning it was so frigid and the night before was so extremely cold that three saddle animals and five head of cattle were frozen to death, and the weather was so hard on our people that almost none of them slept, for they spent the night occupied in feeding the fires in order to withstand it. At seven o'clock I was informed that for the reasons given, and on account of the thirst which the cattle of necessity felt, many of them had escaped in the darkness of the night from the men who were watching them. I therefore ordered three soldiers to go with a sergeant and a vaquero to look for them, and that the rest should proceed on the next journey, for, because of the lack of water indicated, it is not possible to remain here with all of our expedition.

Moving our train, at nine o'clock we set forth on the march toward the west-northwest, following the valley of Santa Catharina, which begins at San Sebastián and in great part cuts the mountain chain previously mentioned. Having traveled along the valley four leagues, three of them having some sand dunes, at the end of this distance we halted in the same valley where plentiful running water as well as some pasturage was found, both to wait for the cattle at a nearer place and because many of the horses of the people who were mounted were about to give out because they were so lean.

On arriving at this place, which we called El Vado, we saw five of the heathen living here, but as soon as they caught sight of us they began to flee, leaving behind the vessels in which they were gathering seeds. In order that they might not be afraid I sent one soldier after them to bring them to the camp, so that I might give them presents. Having overtaken them he had them come a little nearer, but when they saw our men closer up they again fled. Seeing this I gave orders that they should not be pursued, lest they might consider it an act of violence. Their vessels, a bow, and three of their blankets of jack rabbit skin which they left behind, as I have said, I caused to be gathered up and placed where they could find them.

At seven o'clock at night the cattle which had set out ahead of us from San Gregorio arrived at the camp, eleven of them having died because they were completely worn-out. For the same reason five saddle animals were left at a watering place less than a league from where we were halted, with the intention of sending in the morning to see if they were able to come forward. -- 36. From Tubac to the beginning of the water of Santa Catharina, 156 leagues.

Thursday, December 21 SP -- The cattle and the men who were to conduct them not having appeared by daylight, at that hour I sent for them two soldiers with saddle animals, in order that all might have new mounts, giving orders that the cattle should be hurried as little as possible so as to prevent losses among them. At the same time I sent for the mounts which remained behind yesterday, but at ten o'clock they returned with only one because three had died, as had also the cattle which had remained behind on the same day.

Friday, December 22 SP -- We remained in this place because the sergeant and the cattle which he was to bring did not put in an appearance during the whole day. At half past four in the afternoon the sergeant arrived with the distressing news that all the cattle, which he was not able to overtake until he reached the Marsh of San Sebastián, he found dead in the mires of that watering place, because they did not go to it by way of the trail which had freed them from the mires when we drove them. This loss comprised about fifty head of cattle. Those which were prevented from reaching the marshes already mentioned, and others which they found alive in them and were able to rescue, he brought to San Gregorio, where he gave them some water, because we had cleaned the wells during the time when we were there.

The foregoing loss cannot be charged to want of attention or care. This is proved by the lack of any such loss previous to this fatal event, and although other cattle have played out for causes already mentioned and unavoidable in so long a march, yet they have been brought with the greatest care possible, even to the extent that they have not been abandoned until they have died of inability to move. With this in view, at the time when I began the journey I provided seven men to devote themselves solely to caring for the cattle, watching and striving for their best management. In the journeys which have been made they have been left behind or sent ahead according to circumstances. And finally, no effort whatever has been spared to prevent any kind of misfortune, although in spite of this I have had the disaster here set forth, which has been to me as distressing as it is irreparable.

This afternoon four heathen, so lean and emaciated that they looked more like skeletons from the grave than living beings, came to our camp. Although they came full of perturbation, I made efforts to quiet them with hospitality and the accustomed presents, giving them food to eat and delivering to them the property which their women had abandoned. They appreciated this greatly and withdrew, carrying part of the things with them. A short time afterward six men not quite so badly off came and finished carrying away the things which had been left at our camp, confident that we would not injure them, since no injury had been suffered by the first ones, who were weak and useless, these being among all classes of Indians the ones risked in such cases to come to reconnoiter our people.

All this day it has been threatening to rain, and it actually began at eleven o'clock at night, although not very heavily. We thought that in the sierra nearest to us it was snow which was falling.

Saturday, December 23 SP -- At daylight it was raining, but as it had stopped at nine o'clock I gave orders to march, and we set forth at half past twelve, going northwest and west-northwest, in which direction runs the valley which we were now ascending, and up which we traveled a league and a half in an hour and three-quarters. At the end of this time we halted at the site of Santa Catharina, being forced to do so by the weather, for it had been raining from the time when we mounted our horses until we arrived here. In this place we found a village of about forty heathen people. Only a few of them wished to come to see us, and for that reason only these few were given presents. After nightfall it rained more heavily. -- 37. From Tubac to the spring of Santa Catharina, 157 1/2 leagues.

Sunday, December 24 SP -- Although it continued to rain until nearly daylight and the signs of rain continued, I decided to leave this place and did so at half past nine, continuing along the valley to the northwest with some turns to the west-northwest, through the stoniest country. Having traveled in this direction three leagues in as many hours, we halted at the villages of the people who on our last journey we called Los Danzantes, the stop being made necessary because a woman was taken with childbirth pains .

Although from seven o'clock in the morning until two in the afternoon it had been cloudy, with a fog so dense that one could hardly see anything twelve yards away, several heathen as timid as the foregoing allowed themselves to be seen by us on the march. In the place where we now are they have conducted themselves in the same way, although all are unarmed. At a quarter to eleven in the night our patient was successfully delivered of a boy, which makes three who have been delivered between the presidio of Tubac and this place, besides two others who have miscarried . These and three others who miscarried on the way to San Miguel de Horcasitas make a total of eight, all enroute, with no other death than that of one woman. -- 38. From Tubac to the villages of Los Danzantes, 160 1/2 leagues.

Monday, December 25 SP -- Because of the occurrence of last night already mentioned it was not possible to march. Today it has been as wet as yesterday, the land where we are being extremely so because it has rained so much here, but the patient has not experienced any bad results from it.

There not being in this place enough water for our cattle, although there is enough for the people, they went to drink at a place about a league from here where they drank yesterday in passing, for fear that what has happened to us would happen to them. After they had done this, running water in abundance was found a quarter of a league away to the southwest of our camp and of the road which we are following, with an abundance of pasturage and firewood, which we now know about for another occasion.

Tuesday, December 26 SP -- Today having dawned fair, at the regular hour the sun came out bright. For this reason and because the mother was better and had the pluck to march, we prepared to break camp, and at a quarter to nine set forth, ascending the valley which has been mentioned, going west-northwest. Having traveled along the valley for about three-quarters of a league, at a place where it narrowed greatly we left it at our left and immediately climbed a small ridge. This was followed by two other smaller ones, by which we arrived at the pass or opening of San Carlos, having traveled in all only about two and a half leagues in four hours, because of the stops which it was necessary to make. Here we halted for the night because it has been raining ever since nine o'clock, although very lightly, since this rain, if it should become harder, might injure the woman who was delivered night before last, and since the march although short has been for the most part up and down. With this march the sierra or cordillera which runs to and ends at Baja California is now overcome or passed. Rain continued until half past four in the afternoon. After it began to get dark a heavy, distant thunder was heard, and this was followed by an earthquake which lasted four minutes. -- 39. From Tubac to the Puerto de San Carlos, 163 leagues.

Wednesday, December 27 SP -- Raising our train, at a quarter to ten we set forth on the march to the west-northwest, and, immediately mounting a very narrow, rocky ridge, we came out to level country with an abundance of the best pasturage, trees, and grass that we have seen thus far. Over this country we continued for two and a half leagues until we passed the Laguna del Príncipe, and having traveled beyond it two and a half leagues, we halted for the night at the site of San Patricio. This last stretch of country has been very miry . Because it froze heavily last night one horse and two cattle died. -- 40. From Tubac to San Patricio, 168 leagues.

I have always desired, and up to recently I have hoped that I should be able to go straight from this vicinity to the presidio of Monte Rey or to the missions near there. But since our cattle are now useless and because of the difficulty of that journey, and knowing that it would cause the loss of all, especially of the cattle, I have been forced to give up this plan, in order to prevent such a disaster. Indeed, to have done otherwise would have meant the certain loss of a great part of our saddle animals. And since the missions on the way can cooperate for our relief, I have sent forward to them by three soldiers a report as to the time when I shall reach there and one also to the commander, Don Fernando Rivera y Moncada, so that he may arrange to have the necessary provisions at the missions, adjusting them to those which I tell him I am carrying. Likewise, I am telling this commander to advise me and order whatever may be best, or he may think best, to promote my arrival at his presidio and to expedite our journey to explore the Rio de San Francisco, in cooperation with the commander of the packet boat which ought to accompany us in case it is there. And I am requesting that in order that this may not be prevented by my delay he shall tell me beforehand whatever will best contribute to the desired end.

All the sierra s which we have seen today in the direction of the South Sea, which in the main are independent of the cordillera of Baja California, are so snow-covered that scarcely any trees can be seen on the summits. This sight has been terrifying to most of the people of our expedition who, since they were born in the Tierra Caliente, have never seen such a thing before. As a result they have become so melancholy that some of the women had to weep. Through their tears they managed to say, "If so many animals died of cold and the people nearly died in places where there was less snow, how will it be in the place where we see so much of it?" I checked these complaints by various counsels, telling them that the cold would be moderated when we got to the seacoast and its missions, as had already been experienced. And so, since the coast where they were born is hot, they have concluded that it will be the same here, and that in the missions there will be a remedy for troubles which may arise.

Thursday, December 28 SP -- In addition to the cold and the extreme wetness of the ground, in the night the woman who was delivered four days ago was taken with severe pains, with signs of a hard spasm, and as she was this way in the morning it was not possible to travel today. At two in the afternoon I sent the cattle and the worn-out horses to pass the night two leagues from this place in order that they may make the next journey with greater ease.

Friday, December 29 SP -- The patient having experienced some alleviation during the night and yesterday, we were able to set forth. At half past nine we began the march down the valley of San Patricio, which runs west and west-northwest in the main to join the river of Señor San Joseph on the north. Having traveled six leagues in these directions in the course of seven hours, we arrived at four o'clock in the afternoon at the river named, where a halt was made for the night. In the march which we have made today we have found the valley so full of running water that we have crossed it about two hundred times. Notwithstanding that day before yesterday I sent all the incapacitated saddle animals forward in order that they might divide the journey, this did not prevent us from losing two in spite of all the efforts which were made. On reaching this place eight heathen appeared in sight about a gunshot away, but, because of their nature, they did not wish to come any closer, and they retired to the sierra as soon as they saw our people pass. -- 41. From Tubac to the valley of San Joseph, 174 leagues.

Saturday, December 30 SP -- Raising our train, at a quarter past nine we set forth on the march toward the west-northwest. We descended the spacious and beautiful valley of San Joseph until we came to the lake of San Antonio Bucareli and, having traveled to reach it a little more than four leagues in the same number of hours, a halt was made here for the night. -- 42. From Tubac to Laguna de San Antonio de Bucareli, 178 leagues.

Sunday, December 31 SP -- Having raised our camp, at nine o'clock we continued our march, going a league to the west to turn some hills; then, leaving these on our right, we went west-northwest, in which direction we made six more leagues in seven and a half hours, until we came to the river of Señora Santa Anna, where we halted for the night. The making of this journey at one stretch has been necessary for the lack of firewood, of which there is none after leaving the river of Señor San Joseph, whence we brought wood to San Antonio, for without firewood in a season so cold and wet as the present it is not possible to exist, and especially under the extraordinary circumstances of our march. Indeed our cattle, because most of them are lame and tired and are driven separately, did not reach this site until midnight, arriving minus one cow and two horses, which fell down completely exhausted and could not be raised. -- 43. From Tubac to the Santa Anna River, 185 leagues.